Ayurveda Treatment Methods

A Guide Line To Ayurveda Treatments & Principles


1. Ajamoda

Names:-        Latin            Carum copticum
Tamil            Omam
Telugu          Omam
Canarese       Oma
Malayal         Ayamodakam
Urdu             Ajwain

Ajamodaacha Soolaghnee
Tiktoshnaa Kaphavaata Jit
Krimijit Vahni Deepanee
Dhanvantari Nighantu

Ajamoda (Omum) checks colic. It is bitter, heating and conquers Kapha and Vaata. It checks hiccouhs distention of abdomen and bad taste. It conquers worms. It improves appetite.

Doses:- Seeds – 5 to 60 grains. 30 to 60 grains for adults in single dose ground together with half its weight of common salt and taken with water. For repeated administration 10 to 15 grains 3 times a day before food.

Action:- Digestive, antispasmodic, intestinal antiseptic, carminative, and anthelmintic.

Uses:- The seeds contain Thymol. It is a favourite remedy for accumulation of wind in the bowels due to fermentation. It is very useful in dyspepsia and colic of certain types and is used in combination with common salt or soda bi carb. The arka distilled with omam 1 part and 1/16 part by weight of camphor and 100 parts by weight of water is a very good drink in Cholera and other intestinal disorders. According to the strength of the distillate, it may be given diluted with 1 to 4 times the quantity of water. For Hook-worm and other intestinal worms, small doses either of the crude omam or of the arka may be given continuously for some weeks. For children a small quantity of omam is fried in ghee, mixed with a little common salt and given along with rice. For infants below 1 year, a pinch of omam is ground with water or mother’s milk 16 times and given early in the morning or when the abdomen is distended. As an antispasmodic it is given it flatulence, colicky pains, hysteria, stoppage of urine and tympanities. In bronchitis with profuse expectoration, it lessens the sputum. A poultice of crushed fruits is applied to painful rheumatic joints and fomentation of hot seeds to the chest in bronchitis and asthma and to the cold hands and feet in cholera and fainting.

2. Aakaarakarambha

Names:-        Latin             Pyrethrum radix
Tamil             Akarakaram
Telugu           Akkalakara
Canarese       Akalakara
Malayal          Akikaruva
Urdu              Akharkora

Akallakoshno Veeryena
Balakrith Katuko matah
Pratisyaayamcha Sodhamcha
Vaatamchaiva Vinaasayet.

Aakaarakarabha is pungent and heating and strength giving. It overcomes cold, swelling and Vaata.

Dose:- 5 to 20 grains.

Action:- Sialogogue (increases the flow of saliva), astringent and tonic.

Uses:- This is a sweet stuff; increases the flow of saliva and is used in fevers, specially in summer. It forms a vehicle of many compound powders and may be given in doses of 5 grains as a tonic. An infusion of the root in 16 parts of water may be used as a mouth wash in sore throat with honey and in fevers. It enters into the composition of aphrodisiac pills and lehyams.

It is said to be a powerful agent in killing mosquitos in great dilution in volatile liquids and was used as a destroyer of mosquitos during the last War.

3. Aamalaki

Names:-        Latin             Emblic myrobalan
Tamil             Nellikaai
Telugu           Usirikaaya
Canarese        Nellikayi
Malayal          Nellikai
Urdu              Amia

Kashaayam Katu Tiktoshnam
Swaadu Chaamalakam Himam
Param Tridosha hrut Vrishyam.
Jwaraghnam cha Rasaayanam
Dhanvanthari Nighantu.

Amalaki is slightly astringent, pungent, stimulant, heating and sweet. It is cooling in action as compared with Hareetaki. Further, it is Tridosha hara and aphrodisac. It checks fever and is a tonic.

Dose:- 10 grains with honey for repeated administration. ¼ to 1 tola made into a decoction with 8 times the quantity of water reduced to one fourth, filtered and taken with honey according to taste for single administration.

Action:- Cooling, digestive, astringent and tonic.

Uses:- In Pitta diseases, it is a favourite vehicle for administration of other medicines. In the combination of Thriphala it is used as thridoshaharam. In Lehyams such as Chyavanapraasa it is a tonic. Basavaraj, a famous physician of the Andhra Country prescribes Amalaka swarasa alone in the treatment of Diabetes. Susruta recommends the fresh juice of Amalaki mixed with turmeric and honey in Prameha. In the diet of patients, when other acids are contra-indicated, Aamalaki and pomegranate are recommended. It is also used in jaundice. It is now discovered that Amalaki is rich in Vitamin C even in the dry state.

4. Aphenam (Ahiphenam)

Names:-        Latin             Opium
Tamil             Apin
Telugu           Nallamandu
Canarese       Aphinu
Malayal          Aphin, caruppu
Urdu              Afim

Aphookam Soshanam graahi
Sleshmaghnam Vaatapittalam

Ahiphena (Aphookam – Opium) dries up secretions (except sweat) and is astringent. It checks Kapha and increases Pitta and Vaata. (Here increasing Vaata possibly means that abdominal distention and constipation are increased. It no doubt alleviates pain temporarily.)

Dose:- Internally ½ to 2 grains as pill or in compound pill or powder or as an aasavam.

Externally as a liniment or plaster.

Action:- Sedative, hypnotic, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, anodyne, narcotic and cerebral depressant.

“Aphenam sannipataghnam vrishyam balyamcha mohadam” Raja nighantu, “Aphukam shoshanam graahi sleshmaghnam vaatapittalam, Madakrut daahakrucchukrasthambanayacha mohakrith, Athisaara grahanyaancha hitam deepana paachanam.”

Uses:- It is one of the most valuable drugs if properly used and the most dangerous if misused. It is the best drug to relieve pain but should never be given when the cause of pain is not known and when the pain could be relieved by fomentation, counter irritation, expurgation, and other processions. Also, it should never be given when the patient is sleeping.

If there is indigestion, it is better to allow proper digestion to take place rather than to check the active natural processes. Therefore in the early stages of indigestion or diarrhoea it is contra-indicated. But in late stages when motion is yellow and the mala shows no signs of indigestion, opion is a very valuable drug to give rest to the intestines and to effect a cure in certain stages of diarrhoea, dysentery and cholera. Improper use or large doses help to poison the system not only by its own poisonous effect but also to retained, undigested faecal matter in the intestines and to suppression or retention of urine. Another great danger in its use is that it lessens all tissue activity and that all the secretions except sweat are reduced. When stools and urine are stopped, the patient may be apparently feeling better but he may be actually growing worse owing to the accumulation of poisons in the system. It is therefore most dangerous to give opium when the kidneys or urinary system or the liver are affected.

In pain due to nervous disease, its action is marvelous and sometimes permanent. I know of diseases in which all other drugs failed for months or years together and a small dose of opium effected a radial cure; for example, one case of pain in the gastric region with irritation which lasted for years and another case with gnawing pain in the left shoulder-joint due to chronic rheumatism or gouty tendency which did not yield to any other treatment responded to a very small dose of opium and were permanently cured even when the opium was withdrawn. In distressing cough or spasm in lung diseases its use may be advantageous.

In children, opium is given in the Northern Circars for almost all diseases. The success mostly depends upon the experience of the mother and on the hereditary habit. But, it should be strongly discouraged.

As an aphrodisiac, it is successfully used by some but it is difficult to estimate its value. In diabetes, I have found its use invariably harmful in the long run and the cases in which opium is found useful are more easily amenable to cure by having recourse to a natural diet rich in vegetables, to regulated physical exercises and mental rest. In case of pain due to incurable diseases such as cancer, last stages of consumption etc., it is most valuable as alleviating the sufferings temporarily but should be used cautiously.

As an external application, it is most useful in relieving pain and in inflammation in certain cases and is used as a liniment with oil and camphor or as a plaster with Gandhapheroja (a gum resin) – 10 to 30 grains to an ounce either of liniment or of plaster.

5. Arjuna Thwak

Names:-         Latin             Terminalia arjuna
Tamil             Marudam pattai
Telugu           Maddipatta
Canarese        Maddi chekka
Malayal          Nermadalam
Urdu             Arjun

Kakubhah Seetalo Hridyah
Kshata Kshaya Vishaasrajit
Medomeha Vranaam Hanti
Tuvarah Kapha Pitta Hrit.

Arjuna (Kakubhah) is cooling and checks heart diseases, Haemorrhagic consumption and poisons (Toxaemia). It is useful in obesity (Medas) and in Diabetic wounds. It is astringent and checks Kapha and Pitta. As an astringent, it is used in tooth powders.

Dose:- 5 to 30 grains as a powder.

Action:- Cardiac tonic.

Uses:- It is a reputed heart tonic of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia. I have observed large doses to depress the heart. Small doses taken over a long period with sugar and ghee steadily improved the condition of the heart giving it strength. It is used as a powder either alone or as a compound as in Kakabudi choornam or in Arjunaarishta.

6. Arka

Names:-        Latin            Calotropis gigantea
Tamil            Erukku
Telugu          Jilledu
Canarese       Ekka
Malayal         Erukku
Urdu             Madar

Arkaadiko Ganohyeshah
Kapha medo Vishaapahaah
Krimi Kushta Prasamano
Viseshaat VranasodhanahSusruta.

The group of drugs beginning with Arka (Arkaadigana) checks Kapha and fat, and poisons. It alleviates diseases due to worms and Kushta. It is specially useful for cleaning wounds.

Internally –
Of the dry root bark 3 to 10 grains as a tonic and 30 to 60 grains as an emetic.
Milk of the plant dried and made into powder – 3 to 10 grains.
Decoction 1 in 8, reduced to half – ¼ to 1 oz.

Compound pills –

Hingilikam heated gently stirring with the milky juice continuously replenished for some hours and the stick so obtained is used along with other anupanams.
Calomel grain 1, Rasanjanam (Antimony sulphide powder), grains 5, make one pill with honey. 1 pill 2 or 3 times a day for elephantiasis and syphilis.
Fresh flowers made into pills, with equal parts of pepper and a little honey, of 5 grains and kept in a stoppered bottle.
Arka Pippali. Pippali is soaked in the milk of Arka and ground in mortar for six days (Bhaavana) and dried and kept well corked. Dose ½ to 2 gr.
Take Arka flower, Pepper and Lasuna in equal parts. Grind well in a mortar and make into 5 gr. Pills. – Arkaadi Vati.
For Snake bites –

Milky juice made into a pill of small marble size and given wrapped in betel leaf. Repeated every half hour till vomiting is caused or after 2 doses reduce the dose and give upto 9 doses.

Juice mixed with water in the same doses as above if the patient cannot swallow the pill.

Leaves two or three – chew and swallow after snake-bite.

Apply root rubbed in water over the bite; Same as kalikam into the eyes.

One Tola of the swarasam of the root-bark for snake poison.

Ghee:- Dry flowers 10 to 12. Ghee 5 tolas. Boil the ghee and strain. Dose of the ghee ½ to 1 tola.

Oil:- Prepared by boiling the milk of the plant, goat’s milk, tamarind leaf juice and Nirgundi swarasam and gingelly oil in equal parts. (Refer Arkaadi Thaila).

Flowers:- Dry flowers mixed with equal parts of pepper and salt and made into powder. Dose 3 to 10 grains twice a day gradually increased or as a confection or one flower may be chewed with betel leaf.

Ash:- Of the ash (kshaara) 1 to 5 grains with plenty o water.

Externally –

Leaf:- Smear the leaf on the soft side with castor-oil, warm it and apply comfortably hot to inflammatory swellings or inflamed anus or piles.
Take a handful of the leaves. Cut them in the middle. Tie them into a bundle so as to expose the cut-surfaces as a brush. Dip the cut-surfaces in hot oil. Remove excess of oil and foment with the cut-surfaces over painful joints or painful glands comfortably warm.
Warm the ripe leaf and squeeze the juice into the painful or suppurating ear.

Milky juice:- Mix fresh milk with salt and apply to small cuts or sprains or painful tooth or painful joints or nervous pain or boils.
Milky juice or crushed leaf applied over the scorpion bite.
The application of the milky juice is depilatory (Romanaasaka). Also useful in ring-worm of the scalp.

Root:- Grind the root with water obtained by washing raw rice, make into a paste and apply to the affected parts in elephantiasis.

Action:- Purgative and emetic in large doses, antispasmodic, expectorant, diaphoretic, antimalarial, antidysentric, antisyphilitic, antiparasitic for tapeworm, emmenagogue, bloodpurifier and tonic in small doses.

Uses:- Calotropis gigantean or Arka is of two kinds, purple and white flowered. The white flowered variety is believed to be more efficacious. It is a powerful drug used in a variety of ways by some physicians who have great success depends upon the proper administration of the dose and diet. In the hands of the experienced physicians it is absolutely safe, and of the inexperienced, most dangerous. So also are the modern injections containing virulent poisons such as arsenic.

It is used with success to relieve the fits of asthma and the pains of rheumatism. The milky-juice is applied over the painful joints and covered with turmeric by the poor. In diseases of the spine and the nervous system, the fresh milk is applied over the spinal cord and dusted with turmeric. The confection of the flowers is more used in chronic asthama and bronchitis. The powdered root-bark with pepper is also used for the same purpose. It is also known to be antidysentric. The compound powder is given in heart disease, dyspepsia, cholera, syphilis, leprosy, gonorrhoea, asthma, dropsy, ascites, rheumatism, malarial fever and skin diseases. An external application of turmeric mixed with the milky-juice is recommended by Vangasena for dark patches of discoloration in the face. The root-bark powdered, soaked in the milky-juice is recommended by Vangasena for dark patches of discoloration in the face. The root-bark powdered, soaked in the milky juice, dried and made into cigars is smoked as an inhalation in cough and asthma. In cases of severe post-nasal catarrh and obstruction in the throat with difficult breathing, the pollen grains of the flower are tactfully dusted in the nostrils by suitably placing the flower in front of the nostril and dealing a sharp finger blow so as to eject out the pollen grains into the nostrils. This has an immediate irritating action which relieves the congestion and swelling of the throat and nose (an expert treatment). The ashes of the leaves obtained by roasting in a closed vessel mixed with rock-salt is given in enlargement of the liver and spleen, in intestinal worms, ascites, anasarca and in dysentery (Dose 3 to 10 grains).

Arka Pippali is used by me in severe types of Asthma during the fit. It may cause a vomit but it relieves the fit at once. Arkadi Vati – I have used it as a reliable specific in some cases of Malaria (of the Kapha type).

Antidote for poisoning by Arka:-

Fresh juice of the indigo leaf.
Sugar mixed in water.
Tamarind leaf juice mixed with water.
Castor oil 1 dose.

7. Asoka Thwak.

Names:-         Latin             Saraca indica
Tamil             Asoka pattai
Telugu           Asoka patta
Canarese        Asoka chekka
Malayal          Asoka pattai
Urdu              Asok

Asokah Seetalah tiktah
Graahee Varnyah Kashaayakah
Doshaa pachee Trishaa Daaha
Krimi Sosha Vishaa srajith.

Asoka is cooling, bitter, astringent, restoring complexion, and is stiptic. It matures the Doshas and is useful in Apachee, trishna, daaha, Krimi, Sosha, Visha and diseases of blood.

Dose:- Rarely given as a powder. Decoction is made, filtered and again reduced to a soft mass or a solid extract (Rasakriya). Dose of Rasakriya 5 grains.

Decoction of the dark boiled with water 1 in 16, reduced to one-fourth if dry, or 1 in 8 reduced to one-fourth if fresh. Dose ½ to 2 ounces with a little sugar or honey.

Action:- Astringent and tonic used specially in uterine haemorrhage or disorders.

Uses:- Its use is specially favoured in menstrual disorders particularly in irregular haemorrhage as an astringent tonic. It is also given in combination with Iron salts as a pill or in liquid form as in Asokarishta. The red flowered one is the real Asoka. But in Southern India the foliage tree found in the sides of roads called Naramaamidi (Polayalthia longifolia) is used and is reputed to give the desired results.

8. Aswagandha

Names:         Latin            Withania somnifera
Tamil            Amukkura Kilangu
Telugu          Penneru-Gadda
Canarese       Hirre-Gedde
Malayal         Amukkuram
Urdu             Asgand

Aswagandhaa nila Sleshma
Switra Sodha Kshayaapahaa
Balyaa Rasaayanee Tiktaa
Kashaayochaati Sukralaa.

Aswaghandha checks Vaata, Kapha Leucoderma, Dropsy and Consumption. It improves strength, it is a tonic, bitter and astringent, stimulating (heating) and improves sperm.
It is one of the drugs most used by me.

Dose:- 20 to 60 grains as powder mixed with sugar and ghee or milk according to digestive power
As a decoction, the same dose of powder boiled with 8 times the quantity of water, add equal quantity of milk filter and take with a little sugar or honey once or twice a day like coffee.

Action:- Nutritive and nervine tonic.

Uses:- It is one of the most reputed drugs in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoea for its tissue building properties. In weakness of the body after fevers or insomnia due to nervous break-down, it is given with very good results either as directed above or as a lehyam or confection. It is believed to be an antinode for vegetable poisons such as aconite and for poisons accumulated in the system due t syphilis or chronic ailments “Peruleni vyaadhiki pennerugadda” – (for a nameless disease give Aswagandha).

9. Aswattha

Names:-        Latin             Ficus Religiosa
Tamil             Arasi Maram
Telugu           Raavi Chettu
Canarese        Aswatha
Malayal          Arayal
Urdu              Peepal

Pippalo durjarah seetah
Pitta sleshma Vranaasrajit
Guruh tuvarako rooksho
Varnyo yoni visodhanah.

Pippala (Aswatha) is stringed. It is difficult to digest (durjarah). It is cooling. It checks Pitta and Sleshma. It is guru and rooksha. It improves complexion. It is useful in the treatment of Vrana (ulcers) and diseases of the blood. It is good for Vaginal douching (Yoni Sodhanah).

Dose:- 20 to 60 grains of the powdered bark with honey. As a decoction the same dose boiled with 2 ounces of water reduced to half an ounce and given with honey. As a gargle the same decoction mixed with honey. As a Vaginal douche – 1 dram to 1 ounce of the bark is boiled with 40 to 80 ounces of water for an hour or so, so that a pink solution is formed. Filter and give as a Vaginal douche either alone or mixed with honey, Salt, Alum, or Borax, one teaspoonful to a tint. For an Enema or for washing wounds the same decoction may be used.

Action:- Astringent, Haemostatic, Antiseptic, Aphrodisiac, and tonic.

Uses:- Aswattha is one of the drugs most used as an astringent and antiseptic. Susruta classifieds it under Nyagrodhaadigana (group) which is most useful in the treatment of wounds.

Nyagrodhaadir gano vranyah
Sangraahi bhagna Saadhakah
Raktaitta Haro daahah
Medaghno Yonidosha hrit.

Nyagrodhaadhi group is very beneficial in the treatment of ulcers (Vranyah). It has astringent properties (Sangraahi), coagulates all sorts of secretions, favours the adhesion of fractured bones (Bhagna Saadhakah). It proves curative in a case of haemoptysis (Raktapitta hara). It relieves burning sensation. It is an antifat (Medaghna). It cures disorder of the uterus and Vagina. (Yonidosha Hrit). Some of the other drugs in the group are the Baanyan, Fig, Yestimadhu (Liquories) Arjuna, Mango, Jambu etc. They may also be used in combination with Aswattha or as a substitute for it. Charaka includes Aswattha in the group of the drugs which reduce the urine (Mootrasangrahaneeya).
I have been using the decoction of Aswattha very extensively for Vaginal douching with very good results.
Aswattha is highly recommended in the treatment of the following diseases.

(1)            Vaata Rakta – A decoction of Aswattha is given with honey. Charaka Chikitsa, A. 20.
(2)              Vrana (Ulcers) – Cover wounds with Aswattha leaf. They heal quickly. Charaka Chikitsa, A. 13.
Dust wounds with fine powders of Arjuna, Udumbara (fig) and Aswattja (peepal). The skin spreads quickly over the ulcers. Charaka Chikitsa, A. 13.
(3)              Meha-Urinary diseases – Decoction of Aswattha is very useful in Neela Meha (blue urine).
(4)              Aphrodisiac – The fruit of Aswattha, root, bark and tender shoot are boiled with milk and taken internally with sugar and honey. It is highly aphrodisiac.  Susruta Chikitsa, A. 11.(5)              Fracture – The barks of Aswattha, Palaasaa, and Arjuna are very useful in bandaging for broken bones as soft but strong splints.
(6)              Ear diseases – The leaves of Aswattha, Bilwa, Arka and Castor tree are crushed with Tila oil and Saindhava and baked in Puta paaka. The juice expressed from the mass is dropped comfortably hot into the ear. It relieves pain and heals the ulcer. Vag. Uttara, A. 18.
7)              For swellings – The bark of Aswattha, Fig and Vata (Banyan) are ground into a nice paste and mixed with ghee and applied as a plaster over a swelling. The swelling is relieved. Vagbhata, Uttara, A. 25.
(8)              Sterility in Women – A plant growing in an Aswattha tree (Badanika – Parasite) is boiled with milk and given internally. It helps to establish pregnancy.
(9)              Vomiting – Dried Aswattha bark burnt into ashes and mixed in water and allowed to settle down. The supernatant fluid is filtered and given in severe vomiting. Chardim Jayanti Dustharam – Chakradatta.
(10)          Burns – Burns heal quickly by dusting them with fine powder of dried Aswattha bark.
(11)          Inflammation of the mouth – Fine powder of Aswattha bark is applied with honey to the mouth for relieving inflammation.
(12)          Satadhauta Ghritham – Ghee is churned vigorously in decoction of Aswattha (100 times) and a butter-like substance is obtained. A little sajja rasa is also added sometimes. This is very cooling and useful in the treatment of burns and acute ulcers. It is used for Plague Buboes.
(13)          The seeds of Aswattha are powdered and given along with other drugs in diabetes and urinary diseases.
(14)          Glands in the neck – The ash of Aswattha bark made into an ointment is applied for suppurating glands in he neck as a plaster.
(15)          A decoction of Aswattha bark is recommended as a drink to alleviate burning sensation in Gonorrhoea. It is also used in intestinal ulceration.

10. Bala

Names:-         Latin            Sida cordifolia
Tamil            Chitaamuttie
Telugu          Lunjapatnala chettu, Chittaa-mutti
Canarese       Kadira beru
Malayal         Kurunthttie
Urdu             Bariar

Balan Snigdhaa himaa Svaaduh
Vrishvaa balyaa tridoshanuth
Raktapitta Kshayam hanti
Balaujo vardhayatyapi
Dhanvanthari Nighantu

Bala is greezy, cooling and sweet. It is an aphrodisiac and strengthening. It checks the three doshas, Rakta, Pitta and Kshaya. It improves strength and Ojas also.

Dose:- Generally used as a decoction – 1 Tola of the drug boiled with 8 times the quantity of water down to one fourth and given along with a pinch or two of pippali or Thrikatu choornam or with milk and sugar as a pleasant soothing beverage or as a compound in Quatha choornams.

Ksheerabala Thailam – Bala – Whole plant 1 part, water 4 parts, make decoction and filter. Add milk equal parts, oil 1.4 part – Boil till oil remains.

Action:- Vaataharam.

Uses:- It is believed to remove the poisons of auto-intoxication such as those caused in rheumatism or fevers. The decoction is given as an anupanam for other medicines such as pills and is expected to relieve pains in the body and also wind in the bowels. It is believed to have a soothing tonic effect on the nervous system and is used as an oily extract boiled hundred times with milk and known popularly as Ksheerabala thailam.

11. Bhallathaka.

Names:-        Latin             Semecarpus amnacardium
Tamil             Shengottai
Telugu           Nalla jeedi vittu
Canarese       Gerika beeja
Malayal          Cherkuru
Urdu              Bhilava

Bhallatakah Katutiktoshno
Madhurah Kriminaasavat
Gulmaarso grahanee Kushtam
Hanti vaata Kaphaaniavaan.
Dhanvanthari Nighantu.

Bhallataka is pungent and sweet and heating. It destroys Krimi, Kapha, and Vaata diseases. It is useful in the treatment of gulma, Asras (piles), grahanee (Dysentery) and Kushta.

Dose:- 1 to 4 seeds boiled with 8 oz. Of milk, strained and taken with a little ghee and sugar.
Or as a decoction with 8 times the quantity of water, reduced to 1/8 and the filtrate taken with milk after smearing the mouth and throat with ghee (Charaka) or as a Lehyam.

Diet:- Rice with ghee and milk. Sugar may be used. Salt and tamarind are to be excluded.

Action:- Stimulant, carminative, antirheumatic, antisyphilitic, anodyne, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac and tonic.
Locally caustic and vesicant.

Uses:- Bhallathaka is one of the drugs, which in the hands of certain physicians produces extraordinarily beneficial results. The processes of treatment by the drug are heroic and the results are in some cases miraculous. Bhallathaka is one of Charaka’s most favourite Rasayanas (tonics). “Kaphajo na sa rogosthi, na vibandhosti kaschana, yam na bhallathakam hanyath, seeghra magnibalapradam” (Charaka).

In rheumatism, in almost all cases, it acts as a specific in relieving the pain and inflammation. As an antisyphilitic in all the three stages, it is used as a popular remedy today in rural areas. The diet restriction seems to be necessary or at least helps to expedite the cure. In cancer or inoperable tumours, it relieves pain and in some cases resolves the tumour. It is used ordinarily in piles, indigestion, worms, asthma, enlargement of spleen, leucoderma, rheumatism, etc. The seed is heated in the flame of a lamp and the oil is dropped in a cup of milk and given in cough due to relaxed throat and uvula.

Externally, it is used as an application for alopecia ground with honey into a paste. Boiled with oil and scented stuffs, it is used as a hair oil and is reputed to promote the growth of hair. The dark acrid oil exuding from the seeds is used as a blistering agent by the poorer classes. The blistering and poisonous properties are counteracted by smearing gingelly oil locally.

Workers with the drug in the pharmacy smear gingelly oil to their hands and they are free from the poisonous effects. Otherwise, itching sensation, blisters and swelling of the whole body, specially of the face, may result by mere proximity not even without touch of the drug, whereas combined with ghee, oil or milk internally and with oil, externally, the drug is safe.

Antidotes for poisoning by Bhallathaka:-

1.             Internally, swarasa or the juice of the bark of Butea frondosa (Palaasa)
2.             Swarasam of the roots of Duraalabaa
3.             Swarasam or decoction of Taanikaaya
4.             Swarasam of Chirrikoora with kalkanda
5.             Kalkanda and milk.

12. Bharngi

Names:-        Latin             Clerodendron siphonanthus
Tamil             Gantu Bharangi
Telugu           Gantu Bharangi
Canarese       Ghantu Bharangi
Malayal          Sirutekku
Urdu              Bharangi, Brahmaneti

Bharngisyat Swarasetiktaa
Choshna swaasa Kaphaa pahaa
Gulma Jwaraa srik Vaataghni
Yakshmaanaam hanti peenasam
Dhanvanthari Nighantu

Bharangi is bitter, and heating. It checks hard breathing, Cough and Kapha. It is useful in the treatment of Gulma, Jwara, diseases of blood, Vaata, Consumption and chronic nasal inflammation.

Dose:- It is used as swarasam ground with water 8 parts, filtered and taken with honey or may be taken with equal parts of ginger and prepared in the same manner or the powder may be taken with ghee and honey. Dose 10 grains to 1/4 tola.

Action:- Stimulant, antispasmodic and tonic.

Uses:- It is given in a variety of diseases in combination with digestives, expectorants and drugs intended to allay Vaata symptoms. Sushruta recommends its use as a paste in scrofulous diseases for external application and as an arishta or wine in Apasmaaram or epilepsy. Its greatest reputation is for relieving suffering due to hard breathing (Swaasetu Bhaarngi thu oushadham – Yogaratnaakara).

13. Brahmi

Names:-        Latin             Hydrocotyle asiatica
Tamil             Vallarai
Telugu           Saraswataaku
Canarese       Timare
Malayal          Brahmi
Urdu              Bereli, Brahmamanduki

Braahmyaa Yushaa himaa medhyaa
Kashaayaa tiktakaa laghuh
Swaryaa Smrit pradaa Kushta
Paandu Mehasraa Kaasajit.

Brahmi is astringent, bitter and light. It is cooling and improves intellect. It also improves Voice and Memory. It is useful in the treatment of Kushta, Paandu, Meha, blood diseases and Cough.

Dose:- The green leaf, ¼ to 1 tola, with tamarind or lemon juice, salt and other condiments as a chutney.
A teaspoonful to 1.2 ounce of swarasam with honey or ½ to 2 ounces of the infusion of the dried leaf made in proportion of 1 to 8 parts of hot water.
A teaspoonful of the dried leaf made into an infusion like tea with a cup of boiling water and taken with milk and sugar.
Ghritam or syrup prepared in the usual manner – dose 1/4 tola.

Action:- Milk diuretic and brain tonic.

Uses:- It is a reputed tonic for tiresomeness after mental work and is specially used for loss of memory. It has also a reputation for developing the power of speech in those who have defective speech and to improve the power of poetic imagination (Appakaveeyam). It is also used in epilepsy and mental disorders.

14. Bringaraaja

Names:-        Latin             Eclipta erecta
Tamil             Karisilaanganni
Telugu           Guntakalagara
Canarese       Garga
Malayal          Kayyunni
Urdu              Bringrah, Bringaraj

Bhringaraaja Samaakhyaatah
Kaphasophaama Paandu twak
Hridroga Visha naasanah.

Bhringaraaja is tikta and heating. It is rooksha (non-oily). It checks Kapha, Sopha, and Aamadosha. It is useful in the treatment of skin diseases, Paandu, Hridroga and Visha.

Dose:- Five to ten terminal leaves of Bringaraaja plant mixed with 5 to 7 seeds of pepper, ground together nicely with buttermilk into a pill and given every morning or made into a pill with jaggery and given every morning.
Or a teaspoonful to half ounce of swarasa of the leaves mixed with 2 to 4 ounces of milk and a little sugar or with 4 ounces of buttermilk and a little salt to be given every morning.
Or ¼ to 1 tola of the leaf to be given along with fresh ginger, pepper, salt and other condiments as a chutney.

Action:- Cholagogue (removing bile), antimalarial, febrifuge and tonic.

Uses:- It is one of the most favourite green drugs that are used in Southern India for jaundice. In certain varieties of jaundice. It has a remarkable effect. In low fevers attended with anaemia or Pandu, the pill with pepper has produced very good results. In those cases where digestion is very poor, the preparation with butter milk is to be preferred. As a hair-dye and as cooling to the brain after bath, the oil is used throughout the country and it enjoys a great reputation.

15. Chandanam

Names:-        Latin             Santalum album
Tamil             Chandanam
Telugu           Chandanam
Canarese        Srigandha
Malayal          Chandanam
Urdu              Sandal

Chandanam seetalam rooksham
Tiktamaa hlaadanam Laghu
Srama Sodsha Visha Sleshma
Trishnaa Pittaasra Daahanuth.

Chandanam is cooling, drying, bitter, pleasing and light. It relieves tiresomeness, checks wasting, poisons, Kapha, Thirst, Rakta pitta, (haemorrhage) and burning sensation.

Dose:- 10 to 30 grains with sugar and ghee or with ghee, sugar and honey.

Action:- Cooling, antiseptic.

Uses:- Chandanam is very much used in India for its cooling effect and its sedative effect on the urinary tract. It also enters into the composition of many compound powders and oils. Made into a paste with water and combined with one hundredth part of Pacchakarpooram, it makes a very nice cooling paste for reducing high fevers, especially of the Pitta type. Mixed with curd or butter-milk or cream, it makes a nice antiseptic and antiphlogistic paste for boils and carbuncles.

It is specially used in gonorrhoea and leucorrhoea and is very popular. It is a constituent of bathing powders and scent sticks. The oil made from it by distillation with water is a specific for chronic ulcers, gonorrhoea and gleet. But, it acts better in dilution than in concentration. In prickly heat, 1 part of sandal-wood oil with 8 parts of coconut oil or the paste with Pacchakarpuram and rose water applied at midday or evening is very refreshning and effective. The oil is used in gonorrhoea in 5 minim doses either with milk and sugar or as an emulsion or diluted with ghee.

A compound powder of Chandana, Useera, Daaruharidra and sugar given with Thandulodaka (water obtained by washing raw rice) is recommended for prompt action in haemorrhage. In hiccough – chandanam with milk. In Raktatisara or diarrhoea with blood – Chandanam with sugar, honey and water obtained by washing raw rice – Charaka.

16. Chitramulam

Names:-        Latin            Plumbago Zeylanica
Tamil            Chitramoolam
Telugu          Chitramoolam
Canarese       Chitramoola
Malayal         Kodiveli kilangu
Urdu             Chitrak

Chitrako Agni Samah Paake
Katukah Kapha Sopha Jith
Vaatodaraarso Grahanee
Kshaya Paandu Vinaasanaah.

Dhanvanthari Nighantu.
Chitraka is equal to fire in promoting digestion. It is pungent. It checks Kapha and swellings. It is useful in checking Vaata, Udata (abdominal distention), Arsas (Piles), Grahani (Dysentery), Kshaya (Consumption), and Paandu (Anaemia).
I often use Chitramoolam as Panchakola Quatham in 60 grain doses (Chitraka being 12 gr.) along with 1 oz. of jaggery as a decotion with water.
It is reputed to be of great benefit in puerperal fevers and other acute infections.
It is recommended for external use in Leucoderma and Elephantiasis.

Dose:- Internally, it is not generally used alone but only as a compound powder or pill in the form of Chitrakadi Vati (Charaka) or panchakola quatha choornam. The leaf is recommended as a vegetable preparation along with that of Punarnava in the treatment of dropsy.
Externally, the root is a vesicant and counter-irritant, the red-flowered variety being more effective than the other.

Action:- In small doses, a digestive and carminative. In large doses irritant.

Uses:- In the Allopathic Pharmacopoeia this drug is known only as a poison, whereas in the Ayurvedic, it is used with great benefit in a number of acute and chronic ailments. In some dyspeptics, it acts as a specific when every other drug fails. It is one of the Panchakolas, a popular appetizer or gastric stimulant. It is used in making certain pills such as Sannipata bhairava where its action is believed to be specific against poison (of microbes) causing fever. It is believed to have a specific action in piles and is given in a special preparation with buttermilk and in various other ways. Butter prepared from curd made out of milk boiled with this root, is used in the treatment of chronic ulcers and sinuses as an external application or as an injection into the sinus. It is an abortifacient both by external and internal use. But, its use is probably attended with danger.

17. Daadima

Names:-         Latin               Punica granatum
Tamil             Mathulai
Telugu           Daanimma
Canarese        Daalimbe
Malayal          Thalimathalam
Urdu              Anar

That Swaadu Tridoshaghnam
Trit Daaha Jwara Naasanah
Kashaayaanurasam Graahi
Snigdham Medhaa Balaavaham
Swaadwamlam Deepanam Ruchyam
Kinchit Pittakaram Laghu
Amlamtu Pitta Janakam
Aamavaata Kaphaapaham.

Sweet Pomogranate is Tridoshaghnam. It checks thirst, burning sensation, and fevers. It is also useful in the treatment of diseases of the heart, throat and mouth. It is light, nutritious and an aphrodisiac. It has an auxiliary taste of astringency and is a constrictor. It is oily (Snigdham). It improves intellect and strength.
Pomogranate which is acid and sour improves appetite, and taste. It is light and slightly increases Pitta. Pomogranate which is purely acid creates pitta and checks Aamavaata and Kapha.

Dose:- 10 to 30 grains of the powder of the dried rind of the fruit or of the dried tender fruit.
Of the fruit juice (sweet or sour) diluted with equal parts of water, 8 or 10 oz. for a dose.
Of the flowers mixed with aromatics and astringents such as cinnamon etc in doses of 20 grains.
The juice of the flower as a nasyam.

For tape-worm:-
Of the root-bark ½ to 5 tolas as a decoction or swarasam with 4 times the quantity of water, strained and taken with sugar, honey or castor oil, 2 oz. of the same to be taken every half-hour and then followed by castor oil, if necessary. Repeat the medicine every day till the head of the worm comes out.

Action:- Astringet, anthelmintic specially for tape-worm, nutritive and cooling.

Uses:- The Daadima flower, the rind of the fruit, the tender fruit and the tender leaves are very much used both fresh and dry. The tender fruit or the tender leaves are made into a Putapaakam along with opium and is given in proper doses for diarrhoea and dysentery. Their decoction or swarasam is also given with honey in the same dose. On account of its astringent property this drug is used internally in a variety of diseases, namely, epistaxis, piles, haemorrhage from the mouth, bad taste and indigestion. The fruit juice is a cooling drink and the ripe seeds or the juice of the sour fruit diluted with water according to the taste of the patient is very much appreciated and it relieves thirst and reduces fever. It is also nutritive. Even when all acids are contra-indicated, the acid of Daadima fruit and that of Aamalaki are allowed. It is the least heating of acids according to Ayurveda.

18. Dantibeeja

Names:-        Latin             Croton tiglium
Tamil             Nervaalam
Telugu           Nepaalam
Canarese        Jayapaala
Malayal          Nervaalam
Urdu              Jamalgotg

Jayapaala Katurushnah
Krimihaaree Virechakah
Deepanah Kapha Vaataghno
Jatharaamava nasanah.

Croton seeds (Jaya paala) is pungent and heating. It is a purgative. It improves digestion. It checks Kapha and Vaata and is useful in the treatment of Krimi and abdominal diseases.

Dose:- ½ to 2 grains of the purified seed or one seed just charred in a flame.

Action:- Drastic purgative.

Uses:- It is a good purgative. But, it causes gripping and irritation if given alone and if it is not properly purified.

The methods of purification generally used are either soaking the seeds in cowdung, boiling them with milk or frying them in ghee or castor oil. The powdered seed is generally taken mixed with Hareethai, Sunti or Omam and other carminatives. Its special advantage is the small dose and absence of bad taste. It is very much recommended when brisk purgation and immediate low blood-pressure are demanded, specially in diseases such as apoplexy, heart disease etc. In the way in which it is given after purification by Ayurvedic physicians, it does not seem to be dangerous s the croton oil of the British Pharmacopoeia. It is very much recommended in ascites; but I have not tried it enough. It is contra-indicated in pregnancy and irritable conditions of the stomach and kidneys.

19. Daaruharidra

Names:-        Latin            Berberis aristata
Tamil            Maramanjal
Telugu          Maanupasupu
Canarese       Maradarisina
Malayal         Maramanjal
Urdu             Jarkihaldi

Tiktaa Daaruharidraasyaat
Rookshoshna Vrana mehajit
Rujaan Kandoomcha naasayet.

Daaruharidra is bitter. It is rookha and heating. It is useful in the treatment of Vrana, Meha, diseases of the ear, eye and mouth and in itching.

Dose:- 10 to 60 grains as a powder with honey or sugar in small doses or as decoction or like tea with milk and sugar in large doses.

Action:- Internally – antimalarial, febrifuge and blood-purifier.
Externally – Antiseptic and antiphlogistic.

Uses:- It enters into the combination of fever powders and mixtures. It is a mild diuretic and purifier of urine. It stimulates the liver and is particularly useful in fevers caused by torpid liver. It is a favourite of some physicians who use it frequently in Malaria and other fevers. It is used very much as an antiseptic wash, ointment or plaster. For relieving pain in the eye and for contracting the pupil the solid extract is mixed with opium and applied round the eye.

The powder of the liquid extract (Rasout) forms an ingredient of many antiseptic ointments. It is recommended in erysipelas (Visarpa). It has got almost the same properties as of Haridra or turmeric and is more used internally than the latter.

20. Devadaaru

Names:-        Latin             Pinus deodara
Tamil             Devadaaru
Telugu           Devadaaru
Canarese       Devadaaru
Malayal          Devadaram
Urdu              Devadar

Devadaaru Laghu Srigdham
Tiktoshnam Katu Paakicha
Nibandhaadhmaana Sodhaama
Tandraa Hikkaa Jwaraasrajit
Prameha Peenasa sleshma
Kaasa Kandoo Sameeranut.

Devadaaru is light and lubricating. It is acute and pungent in action. It is useful in the treatment of constipation, distention of abdomen, dropsy, Aama, Sleepiness, Hiccough, fever, Diabetes and other urinary disorders, chronic nasal inflammation, Kapha, Kaasa, itching and Vaata diseases.

Dose:- As a decoction 2 tolas to be boiled with 16 parts of water, boiled down to 4 or 8 tolas and taken with sugar or as tea with milk and sugar.

Action:- Carminative, blood-purifier, probably increases Phagacytosis, mild diuretic, diaphoretic, antiphlogistic and antiseptic.

Uses:- This is one of the most useful drugs which though not very much used separately, is used in combination with other antipyretics. It has a fine fragrance and is specially recommended in glandular diseases and in consumption. The oil or tarry oil obtained by destructive distillation of Devadar is used as an external application for wounds and may also be used internally in leprosy, syphilis and other allied disorders. It is a diaphoretic and diuretic and deserves to be used more than at present, but genuine stuff is not easily available.

Externally, it is used as an antiseptic and antiphlogistic and is applied as a hot paste with water.

21. Dhaanyakam

Names:-        Latin             Coriandrum Sativum
Tamil             Kottamalli virai, Dhaniya
Telugu           Dhaniyalu
Canarese        Kottambari
Malayal          Kottamalli
Urdu              Dhania

Dhaanyakam Tuvaram Snighdham
Avrishyam mootralam Laghu
Tiktam Katoosha Veeryamcha
Deepanam Paachanam Smritam
Jwaraghnam Rochanam Graahi
Swaadu Paaki Tridoshanut
Trishnaa Daaha Vami Swaasa
Kaasaamaarsah Krimi pranut.

Dhaanyaka is astringent, oily, slightly pungent and bitter and Madhura in Vipaaka, slightly improves sperm (avrishyam). Increases urine; improves appetite; matures aama; creates taste for food, slightly constricts and checks Tridoshas. It is useful in fevers, thirst, burning sensation, vomiting, hard breathing (Swaasa) cough, Aamadosha, piles and Krimi.

Dose:- ¼ to 1 tola as a decoction with 8 times the quantity of water reduced to one-fourth.
20 to 60 grains with sugar or in combination with other aromatics as powder or as a condiment according to taste.
Liquid extract of Dhaanyaka ground with water obtained by washing rice (Thandulodaka) and a little sugar is given in teaspoonful doses for children as gripe water.
The green leaf as a chutney with tamarind, lemon or curd and chillies or pepper and salt or as a rasam.

Action:- Aromatic stimulant, digestive, mild expectorant, diuretic, febrifuge and tonic.

Uses:- It is used to disguise the taste and smell of many drugs such as Senna and also to auxiliarate their use. It is a milder stimulant than ginger or pepper, is less irritant and more pleasant especially for indigestion and colic of children; and for catarrh, cold and cough of infants it makes an excellent decoction. A tumblerful of hot decoction, given at the height of fever, relieves thirst, produces perspiration and reduces fever. It improves the appetite and helps in a natural cure of cute short fevers of climatic origin. For Dhaanyaka coffee see Aswagandha.

22. Dhattoora

Names:-        Latin             Datura fastuosa
Tamil             Oomattai
Telugu           Oomettha
Canares         Ummatta
Malayal          Ummam
Urdu              Datura

Prabhaavena Jwaram Jayet
Twagdosha Kriccha Kandooti
Jwarahaaree Bhramaavahah
Dhanvanthari Nighantu

Dhattura is bitter, and heating. It improves complexion and relieves pain due to wounds. It is used externally in Kushta. It checks fever by its pharmacodynamic power (Prabhaavaa) by internal use. It is useful in the treatment of skin diseases, difficulty in passing urine, itching and fevers. It causes giddiness.

Dose:- Of the swarasam 10 drops to a teaspoonful.
Of the oil prepared with four times the quantity of swarasam – 3 to 10 drops with milk.
Of the seeds ½ to 2 grains.

Action:- Anodyne, specific in poisons due to bite of rabid dogs or poisonous insects and insanity and as a sedative in fevers.
Externally it relieves pain, and inflammation and kills parasites. Mydriatic (dialates pupil) and relieves pain in the eyes.
It is described to be a curative of fever by its Prabhava (“pittakrit” Rajavallabha, “Prabhavena jwaram jayet,” Dhanvantri Nighantu).

Uses:- It enters into the composition of pills such as Jwaraankusa rasa, Panchavaktra rasa etc., used in complicated fevers. This drug is rarely used alone internally. But it may be used in certain types of asthma and elephantiasis in repeated small doses, watching the results. In elephantiasis, Vangasena says, that Dhatura seeds, taken daily in gradually increasing doses like Vardhamana pippali with cold water cures cases of serious types. In bites of rabid dogs, the swarasam of the leaf is given in large doses until giddiness is produced and then the patient is bathed in plenty of cold water and is given curd and rice. This is adopted as a secret remedy by some specialists as a preventive against hydrophobia and is well worth a trial.
Externally the oil is of great use in relieving pain due to rheumatism and as eye-drops to relieve the pain in iritis. The seeds ground into a paste with fresh Punarnava root and opium and applied comfortably hot to rheumatic joints is very effective in reducing pains and swellings. The leaf is used as an antiphlogistic poultice smeared with castor oil in inflamed piles and abscesses.

23. Draaksha

Names:-        Latin                Vitis vinifera
Tamil               Draaksha
Telugu           Draaksha
Canarese        Draaksha
Malayal          Mundiringa
Urdu              Munakha

Aamaa Swalpa gunaa gurvee
Saivaamlaa Rakta Pittalam
Draakshaa Pakwaa Saraa Seetaa
Chakshushyaa Brinhanee Guruh
Swaadupaakah Rasa Swaryaa
Tuvaraa Srishta Mootra Vit
Koshta Maaruta hrit Vrishyam
Kapha Pushti Ruchi Pradaa
Hamti Trishna Jwara Swaasa
Vaata Vaataasra Kaamalaah
Kricchraasra Pitta Sommoha
Daaha Sosha Madaatyayaam

Raw Draaksha fruit is heavy to digest and it is acid; it increases Rakta Pitta. It however possesses the properties of the ripe fruit in a small measure. A ripe Draaksha fruit is quickly assimilated, cooling and strengthening. It is heavy (Guru). It is good for the eyes. It has Madhura Rasa and Vipaka, it is slightly astringent and it improves the voice; loosens stools and urine; aphrodisiac. It improves taste and it increases Kapha and makes one plumpy. It sets right vitiated Vata in the bowels.
It checks thirst, fever, hard breathing, Vaata, Vaata Rakta, Kaamala, difficulty in passing urine, Rakta pitta, intoxication (Sammoha), burning sensation, wasting (Sosha) and drunkenness. 50 small or 25 big dry fruits are soaked in a tumblerful of hot water for half an hour, squeezed and filtered. The drink is given with a little sugar or honey at night. It induces soothing sleep in nervous patients.

Dose:- 1 to 3 tolas to be soaked in boiling water for fifteen minutes, crushed, filtered and taken as an anupaanam for other medicines or with milk, sugar or honey as a drink.

Action:- Refringerant, demulcent, cooling, mild laxative, mild diuretic and tonic.

Uses:- This is one of the most useful drugs of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia. It enters into the consumption of various febrifuge and diuretic decoctions. It is generally used to sweeten the medicinal preparations and given to relieve thirst in fever and inflammatory swellings and constipation. In cases of mild constipation it is successful when continued for a long period. The fruit is used in lehyams as a tonic and as a pleasant vehicle. For its nutritive properties, it is valued in consumption and diabetes where its sweetness is not contraindicated. In Raktapitta and anaemia its use is also indicated. As an article of diet for children with liver disorders it is of great value. It relieves Mutrakrichra due to excessive heat and produces sleep in atonic conditions of the nervous system.

24. Ela

Names:-        Latin            Elletaria cardamomum
Tamil            Elakkai
Telugu          Elakkai
Canarese       Eleki
Malayal         Elakkayi
Urdu             Elaichi

Elaa tiktaacha Laghwee Syaat
Kapha Vaata Visha Vranaam
Vasti Kandu Riyohanti
Mukha Mastaka Sodhanee.
Dhanvanthari Nighantu.

Ela (cordamom) is slightly bitter, light to digest; It checks Kapha, Vaata and poisons and is good for wounds (antiseptic). It relieves itching and pain in the bladder. It cleans the mouth and improves mental faculties.

Dose:- 5 to 15 grains as a powder with honey was a decoction with a little sugar or milk or a syrup diluted with water.

Action:- Carminative, cooling, mild diuretic, aromatic and mild expectorant.

Uses:- It is much used in India as a vehicle for other medicines. As a corrective it is given in flatulence. Vagbhata Sushruta advise Ela to be taken with Madhya or wine as a diuretic. It improves the appetite and taste and checks vomiting sensation.

25. Eranda Thailam

Names:-        Latin             Oleum ricini
Tamil             Vilakkennai, Aomanakkennai
Telugu           Aamudam
Canarese        Harelennai
Malayal          Aamanakku enna
Urdu              Chiterindi-ka-thel

Eranda Thailam Madhuram
Saramchoshnam Guru Smrutah
Gulma Vaata Kaphaam schaiva
Sodhamcha Vishama Jwaram.

Erandaa Thailam (Castor oil) is sweet (Preparations fried in castor oil are really sweet. It is also sweet in Vipaka. It is quick in action, heating and heavy. It is useful in checking Gulma, Kapha Swelling and Malarial fever.

Dose:- 1 to 8 fluid drams to be taken with a little milk or equal parts of Inji swarasam and milk or equal parts of pure honey or with an equal quantity of decoction of Hari-thaki or Sunti and honey or s an enema mixed with milk.

Action:- Purgative. In small doses it is a lubricant to the intestinal canal and relieves inflammation.

Uses:- Castor oil is the best of purgatives for children. It may be used every day in teaspoonful doses mixed with mother’s or cow’s milk. In inflammatory conditions of the abdomen it is the safest purgative to be given. In combination with gum acacia and syrup or honey spiced with Ela or ginger it is a pleasant and specific cure for dysentery and other ulcerated conditions of the intestinal canal. In the treatment of sprue (apthaeous condition of the mouth) it has no equal if buttermilk or buttermilk and rice or sweet fruit-juice is given as a light diet. It is recommended in combination with Rasna and Vatahara-oushadhas in hernia and hydrocele. Ayurvedic Physicians consider Eranda thaila (castor oil) as a specific for Aamavata as it helps to remove the poison from the body (“Aamavata gajendrasya sareera vanacharina, Eka eva nihantyaasu eranda gajakesari” Bhaavaprakaasa).
If I am asked to take only one drug with me, I would prefer to select castor oil as the safest and most useful one.
Externally the application of the oil is a very good treatment for cracked skin and fissures and burning sensation in the soles of the feet. Mixed with chunnam it makes an excellent application as a plaster for itch or small boils to expedite opening.

26. Gandhakam

Names:-        Latin (English)      Sulphur
Tamil                   Gandhakam
Telugu                 Gandhakam
Canarese             Gandhaka
Malayal               Gandhaka
Urdu                   Gandhak

Gandhakah Katu tiktoshnah
Teevragandho Atigandha Krit
Vishaghnam Kushta Kandooti
Kritchra twak dosha nasanah.
Dhanvanthari Nighantu
Pittalam Katukah paake
Jantukandoo Visarpajit
Hantikushta Kshaya pleeha
Kapha Vaataam rasaayanam

Gandhaka (Sulphur) is pungent, bitter and penetrating. It has a strong smell. It also creates a strong smell. It increases Pitta and checks Kapha and Vaata. It is useful in the treatment of Visha, Kushta, Kandu (itching), difficulty in passing urine, diseases of the skin, Krimi (worms), Visarpa (Erysipelas), consumption and enlargement of the spleen. It is a tonic (Rasaayana).

Dose:- 5 to 20 grains with ghee or honey.

Action:- Externally parasiticide and internally mild laxative and blood-purifier.

Uses:- Alone its chief use is as an external application as an ointment mixed with oil or ghee. It is an excellent parsiticide and is very useful in itch. It has earned a reputation in certain types of leprosy and it is given in combination with Thriphala and pepper as Gandhaka rasaayana. In combination with mercury, it is very much used in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia as black-sulphide and red sulphide. It is mentioned as veerya-vriddhikaram and rasaayanam.

27. Gokshura

Names:-        Latin            Tribulus terrestris
Tamil            Nerinjil
Telugu          Palleru
Canarese       Nigginamuthu
Malayal         Nerinjil
Urdu             Gokhru

Gokshurah Seetalah Swaaduh
Balakrit Vasti Sodhanah
Madhuro Deepano Vrishyam
Pushtidaschaasmares Harah.

Gokshura is cooling, sweet and strengthening. It cleans the bladder. It increases appetite and is an aphrodisiac. It promotes plumpiness and cures urinary stones.
It is given in Rheumatism along with Sonthi regularly every morning as a decoction and as an aphrodisiac boiled with milk and sugar. In consumption along with Aswaghanda and milk. It is combined with guggulu in the treatment of Diabetes and Vaata diseases.

Dose:- ¼ to 1 tola of the seeds of the whole plant to be taken as a decoction boiled with 8 times the quantity of water and reduced to one-fourth or 20 to 60 grains of the churnam or powder to be taken with ghee or honey or cocoanut water or liquid extract of cocoanut roots and flowers and sugar.

Action:- Non-irritant diuretic and urinary antiseptic, alternative, demulcent and aphrodisiac.

Uses:- An infusion or decoction is used to relieve painful micturition, to increase the flow of urine and as a vehicle for diuretic medicines in dysuria, gonorrhoea and other urinary disorders and for the relief of nocturnal emissions and incontinence of urine. In impotence or sexual debility, it is given with milk and sugar or ghee and sugar according to the strength of digestion. The leaf made into a curry is used in dropsy.

28. Guggulu

Names:-        Latin             Balsomodendron mukul
Tamil             Kungiliyam, Mahishaakshi Guggulu
Telugu           Guggulu
Canarese        Guggulu
Malayal          Guggulu
Urdu              Guggul

Guggulur visadah Tikto
Veeryoshnah Pittalah Sarah
Pidakaa Grandhi Sophaarso
Gandamaalaa Krimeenjayet.
Brihannighantu Ratnaakaram.

Guggulu is clear, bitter, heating and quickly assimilated. It increases Pitta. It is useful in the treatment of abscesses, Tumours, Glands, Swellings, Piles, Scrofula and worms.

Dose:- 5 to 15 grains to be taken with a little ghee or milk.

Action:- Alternative, stimulant, tonic, antispasmodic and emmenagogue.

Uses:- It is often combined with aromatics and given in rheumatism, scrofulous affections and nervous diseases. The compound pill known as Yogaraja-guggulu is used as an alternative in enlarged glands in the neck, chronic rheumatism, dropsy, gleet etc.
It should be taken for a long period in order to observe its results. It may be given in early tuberculosis, scrofulous glands, late syphilis and in chronic rheumatism when other drugs fail.
It has got a very good action in cases of low fevers. It appears to increase phagocytosis and the power of resistance of the individual. It is also recommended as an aphrodisiac tonic. In glandular diseases given very early, specially in children, it acts like a specific.

29. Guduchi

Names:-        Latin            Tinospora cordifolia
Tamil            Shindalkodi
Telugu          Tippatege
Canarese       Amirtaballi
Malayal         Amirta
Urdu             Gulbel Gilay

Gudoochee Katukaa Tiktaa
Swaadu Paakee Rasaayanee
Samgrahanee Kashaayoshnaa
Laghvee Balyaagni Deepani
Doshatrayaama Trit Daaha
Meha Kaasaamcha Paandutaam
Kaamala Kushta Vaataasra
Jwarakrimi Vamit haret.

Gudoochi is pungent and bitter. By Vipaaka, it becomes sweet. It is a tonic. It is also astringent and styptic. It is light and stimulant (Ushna). It gives strength and improves appetite. It is useful in treatment of the vitiation of the 3 doshas, Aama (unripe condition), thirst, burning sensation, Meha, Kapha, Paandu, Kaamala, Kushta, Vatarakta, Jwara, Krimi and Chardi (vomiting).

Dose:- ¼ to 1 oz, as a swarasam to be taken with honey or ½ to 2 tolas to be taken boiled with 8 times the quantity of water and reduced to one fourth as a decoction with honey or sugar.
5 to 30 grains of the Satwam with honey or sugar and ghee or Draksha swarasam.

Action:- Febrifuge, antiperiodic, alternative, aphrodisiac and bitter tonic.

Uses:- It is very commonly used in fevers of any origin. Fresh stem is more efficacious than the dry one. It is a good bitter tonic, alternative and given in debility caused by repeated attacks of fever. As an alternative, it is given in secondary syphilis, rheumatism, leprosy and in jaundice. The juice of the stem and that of Pashaanabhedi is given with honey in gonorrhoea. It is a good blood-purifier and hence it enters into the combination of blood purifying decoctions. The leaves are recommended to be taken as a vegetable curry as a liver tonic and given in piles and low fevers. (Chakradutta).
Guduchi satwam, the glucoside extract prepared out of Guduchi, a favourite tonic of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia, is much used in practice as an aphrodisiac and s an alternative and tonic after an attack of fever. For its nutritive properties, it is much used in consumption, diabetes and other wasting diseases.

30 Hareethaki

Names:-        Latin             Terminalia chebula
Tamil             Kadukkai
Telugu           Karakkaya
Canarese        Anilekai
Malayal          Kadukka
Urdu              Halda, Harade

Pathyaa Pancharasaa Yushyaa
Chakshushyaa Alavanaa Saraa
Medhyoshnaa Deepanee Dosha
Sodha Kushta Jwaraapahaa.

Hareetaki (Pathyaa) has five tastes except salt. It prolongs life. It improves eye sight. It is quick in action (Sara). It improves intelligence. It is comparatively heating and improves appetite. It checks vitiation of the Doshas, Swelling, Kushta and fever.

Dose:- ¼ to 1 tola of the powder to be ground with water, strained through cloth and taken with honey as a laxative.
5 grains with honey as an application to the sore-throat.
10 to 30 grains as a tonic.
¼ to 1 tola as a decoction boiled with 8 times of water, reduced to one-fourth, filtered and taken with honey as an anupaanam to other medicines.

Action:- Laxative, digestive, astringent and tonic.

Uses:- It is a very valuable laxative where a safe drug is required which without irritating the alimentary canal moves the bowels just once or twice. By its astringent property it has  peculiar curative action in dysentery and diarrhoea. It is a reputed tonic specially more used as such in the combination of Thriphala and is specially recommended in digestive disorders, diabetes and eye diseases.
Externally, it is a good antiseptic and slightly caustic. By its astringent action, it is a favourite remedy for eye-sores and granular ophthalmia. A weak decoction is very useful to bathe parts with extensive burns.

31. Haridra

Names:-        Latin             Curcuma longa
Tamil             Manjal
Telugu          Pasupu
Canarese       Arasina
Malayal         Manjal
Urdu              Haldi

Haridraa swarase tiktaa
Rukshoshnaa Vishakushta nuth
Kandoomeha Vranaan hanti
Dehavarna Vidhaayinee
Visodhanee Krimiharaa
Peenasaaruchi naasanee.
Dhanvanthari Nighantu.

Haridra is bitter, dry (Rooksha) and heating. It is useful in the treatment of Visha, Kushta, Itching. Mehavrana (Diabetic wounds), Krimi, Peenasaa (Chronic inflammation of the nose) and anorexia. It is a cleaning agent. It gives complexion to the skin.

Dose:- 5 to 15 grains of the powder to be taken with water and honey or boiled with milk and taken with honey and sugar.

Action:- Aromatic, vermicide, antiseptic, blood-purifier and tonic.

Uses:- Internally it has been recommended in Prameha, Kushta and Sleepada. In Prameha or diabetes it is to be taken with Amalaki swarasa and honey. In Kushta it is said to be taken with cow’s urine. It is generally used in compound powders along with Daruharidra or in its place. In ulcers due to small-pox and skin diseases it is applied as a paste with oil or with oil and neem leaf. Mixed with chunnm and water and made into a nice paste. It is applied hot to boils as a poultice. It has been recommended as a reliable antiseptic for external application to wounds, as a dressing for washing ulcers and inflamed conjuctiva as a weak lotion. It is also used for washing impervious floors in the same dilution and is a disinfectant and deodorizer. It is reputed to be an antidote to poisons and is specially used to purify the poisoned atmosphere. A large quantity of Haridra is burnt where enemies poison the atmosphere of battle-fields. It is used as a condiment and is believed to be a vermicide and digestive and is a safe coloring agent. In sore-throat it is boiled with milk and taken internally or used as an inhalation from boiling water or as a smoke through a pipe in combination with Omam. The following paste is a very popular antiseptic poultice for inflammatory swellings. Garlic or onion 16 parts, Omam 4 parts, Turmeric 1 part. Grind with water into a nice paste. Boil the paste with oil into a poultice. Apply comfortably hot and cover with a tender plantain or lotus leaf and bandage.


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32. Hingu

Names:-         Latin             Ferula fetida
Tamil             Perunkayam
Telugu           Inguva
Canarese       Ingu
Malayal          Kayam
Urdu              Heeng

Hingooshanm paachaum ruchyam
Teekshnam Vaata Balaasa nuth
Soola gulmodaraanaaha
Krimighnam Pitta Vardhanam.

Hingu (Asafoetida) is heating, it digests food. It improves the taste. It is acute and penetrating. It checks Vaata and Kapha and promotes Pitta. It is useful in the treatment of Soola (colicy pain), gulma, udara (abdominal disease), distention of the abdomen and Krimi Antiseptic and Vermicide).

Dose:- 2 to 5 grains made into a pill with jaggery or as an emulsion with milk.

Action:- Carminative, digestive, emmenagogue and antispasmodic.

Uses:- It is a very good carminative and aids digestion. It is much used in Vaata diseases. It is also used as an expectorant in habitual cough, chronic catarrh, bronchitis, as an antispasmodic in asthma and as a carminative in dyspepsia, colic and other gastric affections and to expel worms. It relieves distension of the bowels. For its special action of increasing the menstrual flow it is given in cases of painful menstruation. It is very useful in hysteria and allied nervous disorders. After delivery, it is given for expulsion of the placenta in 5 grain doses every 15 minutes. As an external application to wounds, dissolved in oil, it is an excellent antiseptic and in diseases of the ear it is a reputed specific used popularly in relieving ear-aches.

33. Hingulam

Names:-         Latin             Cinnabar
Tamil             Lingam
Telugu          Ingileekam
Canarese       Ingilika
Malayal          Chayilyam
Urdu              Singruff

Hingulam Katukam paake
Veeryechoshnam prakeertitam
Visha kushta visarpaadi
Twakdoshaharunam Smitam
Tridosha Dwanda doshottham
Jwaram harati Sevitam
Dhanvanthari Nighantu.

Hingulam is pungent by Vipaaka and heating. It is useful in the treatment of Visha, Kushta, Visarpa, and diseases of the skin. It checks fevers, caused by the vitiation of two or even the three doshas.

Dose:- ½ to 2 grains of the powder to be given with honey or along with other anupaanams twice or thrice a day. It is also given enclosed in a raisin or dry Draksha.

Action:- Febrifuge, antiperiodic, antipyretic, anti-syphilitic and tonic.

Uses:- This is the cheapest form of administering mercury in small doses. As it is combined with sulphur, it does not seem to affect the mouth as calomel. Given early in syphilis, it is a very cheap antisyphilitic. It is also used in fevers either alone or in combination with other drugs such as aconite and is believed to have a specific action. Though many costly preparations of mercury are in use, I consider that this is almost as good as any other. As an external application for syphilitic ulcers, skin diseases such as ringworm and diseases of the nails, it is made into an ointment with wax and oil or into a paste with lemon juice and applied. It enters into the composition of many compound pills of the Ayurvedic Pharmacy such as Aaandabhairavam, Sannipaathabhairavam, etc.

34. Ikshuraka

Names:-         Latin             Hygrophila spinosa
Tamil             Neermulli
Telugu           Neerugobbi
Canarese        Mullankole
Malayal          Vayalchullie
Urdu               Thalmakhana

Ikshurakah seetalovrishyah
Swaadwamlah picchilah tadhaa
Tikto Vaataama sodhaasma
Trishnaa Drushtyaa nilaasrajit.
Ikshuraka is sweet, acid and bitter. It is cooling and aphrodisiac. It is sticky (Picchila lubricating). It is useful in the treatment of Vaata, Aamadosha, swelling, stone in the bladder or Kidney, thirst, defect in eyesight, and Vaatarakta. – Bhavaprakaasa.

Dose:- Internally 5 to 30 grains of the powder of the seeds with milk and sugar or ghee and sugar.
½ to 2 oz. of the decoction of the leaves or the whole plant.
Externally the ash of the whole plant mixed with cow’s urine or lime water or water.

Action:- Demulcent, diuretic and aphrodisiac.

Uses:- It is one of the most reputed aphrodisiacs. It is either given alone or as a compound powder mixed with other drugs such as Vidari, Aswagandha etc., or as a lehyam. It is a cooling diuretic and is of much use in gonorrhoea, dropsy, ascites, liver disease and irritation of the urinary tract.
External application of the ash over the swollen parts or the whole body, specially over the abdomen and hands and feet, with cow’s urine has, in some cases, remarkable effects in increasing the quantity of urine and reducing the swellings. A diet mainly of milk and salt free is also recommended in the treatment.

35. Jatiphala

Names:-         Latin              Myristica fragrans
Tamil             Jatikay
Telugu          Jajikaya
Canarese       Jaikai
Malayal         Jatikai
Urdu              Jaephal

Jaateephalam Kashaayoshnam
Katu Kanthaama Yaartijit
Vataateesaara Meghaghnam
Laghu Vrishyamcha Deepanam.

Jateephala (Nutmeg) is astringent, heating and pungent. It is useful in the treatment of diseases of the throat, Diarrhoea of the Vaata type and Meha. It is light; promotes appetite and is aphrodisiac.

Dose:- 5 to 15 grains of the churnam to be taken with honey.

Action:- Astringent, aromatic, carminative, stimulant and aphrodisiac.

Uses:- In small doses it stimulates digestion, increases appetite, relieves flatulence, dyspepsia and colic. In large doses it causes stupor and delirium. As a carminative, anodyne and astringent it is given in diarrhoea and dysentery and to allay nausea and vomiting. Small doses of it frequently given relieve strangury. A paste of it is used as an external application to the head in headache. The oil taken out of this is given in atomic dyspepsia, diarrhoea and as an adjunct to other medicines. Locally, diluted with bland oil, it is applied in rheumatism. Bhava-prakash advocates its paste as an external application in discolored patches of the face and Vangasena recommends the same in leprotic ulcers of the skin. Chewed with betel leaves, it is an aphrodisic and digestive.

36. Jatipatri

Names:-         Latin             Myristica fragrans
Tamil             Jatipatri
Telugu          Japatri
Canarese       Jatipatra
Malayal          Jatipatri
Urdu              Jounthri

Japatri (Mace) is light and sweet. It is slightly pungent and heating. It improves taste and complexion. It is useful in treating Kapha, Swaasa, Vomiting, hard breathing (Swaasa), thirst, Krimi and Visha.

Dose:- 5 to 15 grains of the churnam to be taken with honey.

Action and Uses:- There is a slight difference in taste and it is more aromatic than the above. It is used along with the same and for the same purpose.

37. Jatamamsi

Names:-       Latin              Nardostachys Jatamansi
Tamil             Jatamamsi
Telugu           Jatamamsi
Canarese        Jatamamsi
Malayal          Jatamanji
Urdu              Sunbulutheeb

Maansee tiktaa Kashaayaacha
Medhyaa Kaanti Bala Pradaa
Swaadvee himaa Tridoshaasra
Daahaveesarpa Kushtanuth.

Jatamaamsi is bitter, astringent and sweet. It is cooling. It improves intellect, complexion and strength. It checks the vitiation of the three doshas, and blood burning sensation Veesarpa (Exysipilas) and Kushta.

Dose:- 10 to 30 grains to be taken with honey.

Action:- Aromatic and is believed to be antispasmodic and is used in nervous diseases such as hysteria, epilepsy etc.

Uses:- I have not used it separately but it is given in combination with other drugs for the above purpose. It is also probably an aphrodisiac and is used to improve intellectual capacity. It is said to act like Valerian of the British Pharmacopoeia. A pure stuff is difficult to get.

38. Jeerakam

Names:-        Latin             Cuminum cyminum
Tamil             Jeerakam
Telugu           Jilakarra
Canarese       Jeerige
Malayal          Jeerakam
Urdu              Zeera

Jeeraka thrithayam Rooksham
Katoshnam Deepanam Laghu
Samgraahee Pittalam Medhyam
Garbhasaya Vishudhi Krith
Jwaraghnam Kaachanam Vrishyam
Balyam Ruchyam Paphopaham
Chakshusyam Pavanaa dhmaana

All the three Jeerakas, (White, black and big) are dry (Rooksha), pungent, heating, improve appetite and are light. They are contractors (Samgraahi). They increase Pitta, improve intellect. They clean the uterus. They are used to check fever, and are digestive aphrodisiac, strength-giving, improving taste and checking Kapha. They improve eye-sight/ They check wind, distention of the abdomen, Gulma, Vomiting and diarrhoea.

Dose:- 5 to 60 grains of the powder to be taken with honey or as an anupanam to other medicines.
Or made into a bolus with jaggery or honey it is kept in the mouth and the juice is swallowed slowly.
Or cold swarasa is given with 1 in 4 of water either with honey, sugar or alone.
Or as a decoction prepared in the usual manner.

Action:- Cooling, digestive, carminative, aromatic and uterine and nervine stimulant.

Uses:- It is much recommended in Pittavikara. It aids digestion and improves the taste. Its use is also indicated in dysentery and diarrhoea. It is included in some fever decoctions. As a kalka it is used in the hair oils. It is used in atony or weakness of the uterus and also in paralysis and in want of nerve tone. In combination with jaggery or honey it is used in hiccough.

39. Kachoram

Names:-        Latin             Curcuma zedoaria
Tamil             Kichili kilangu, Poolakilangu
Telugu           Kachoralu
Canarese       Sati
Malayal          Kacholam
Urdu              Kachor

Sathisyaat tiktaa teeshnoshna
Sannipaata jwara apahaa
Kaphogravrana Kaasaghnee
Vaktra suddhi Vidhayanee.
Dhanvanthari Nighantu.

Sathee (Kachora) is bitter, penetrating and heating. It is useful in the treatment of Sannipaata fevers. It checks Kapha, acute ulcers and Cough. It cleans the mouth.

Dose:-  5 to 30 grains to be taken as a powder.

Action:- Cooling, aromatic, mild expectorant, antiseptic and deodorizer.

Uses:- It is used as a scent for cooling hair oils. It is used as a demulcent, carminative and mild expectorant. It is used as a dusting powder for ulcers and as an aromatic in bathing and toilet powders.

40. Kantakari

Names:-         Latin             Solanum xanthocarpum
Tamil             Kantankattiri
Telugu           Vakudu
Canarese        Nelabadane
Malayal          Kantakari
Urdu              Dorla

Kantakaaree Katuh tiktaa
Tadhoshnaa Swaasa Kaasajit
Aruchir Jwara Vataama
Dosha hritgada naasanee.

Kantakaari is pungent and bitter. It is heating. It checks hard breathing and cough. It checks bad taste, fever, Vaata, Aaamadosha and heart diseases.

Dose:- Of the root, 5 to 15 grains of the powder with honey or ¼ to 1 tola of the decoction 1 in 4 when green or double the dose when dry.
Of the leaf and stem, ¼ to 1 tola of the swarasam when fresh or double the above dose when dry as a decoction.
Of the fruit ¼ to ½ tola as a swarasam, with 1 in 4 of water, strained and taken with honey. The root mild, stem, is medium and the fruit is very active both s expectorant and emetic.

Action:- Stimulating expectorant and mild laxative. Probably the root is also diuretic.

Uses:- This is one of the most potent drugs for use as an expectorant when phlegm is liquefied and ready for evacuation. Small doses also help to liquefy the phlegm in the chest and prepare it for evacuation. It is therefore a very popular remedy in all fevers attended with phlegm in the chest. In Influenza it has been of immense use. It is one of the Dasamulas and probably the most reliable of the Dasamulas for the relief of Vaata as well as Kapha. When Kapha is very predominant, the emetic doses may be used with advantage. It does not increase Pitta and is therefore very frequently used in Sannipata fevers or fevers of a complicated nature. In asthma and bronchitis, it may be given as a syrup or as a confection for continued use.

41. Karpuram – (Pacchakarpuram)

Names:-        Latin (English)  Camphor
Tamil                Karpuram
Telugu              Karpuramu
Canarese           Karpura
Malayal             Karpuram
Urdu                 Kafur, Patckafur

Karpoorah Seetalo Vrisyah
Chakshushyo Lekhano Laghuh
Surabhir madurah Tiktah
Kapha Pitta Vishaapaha
Daaha trishnaasya Vairasya
Medo Dourgandhya naasanah.

Karpoora is cooling and aphrodisiac. It is good for the eyes. It is cutting (Lekhama) and light (laghu). It is pleasant sweet and bitter. It checks Kapha, Pitta and Visha. It is useful in the treatment of Daaha (burning, thirst, bad taste in the mouth, Medas (fat), and for overcoming bad smell.

Done:-          (1) ¼ to 5 grains.
(2) ½ to 2 oz. as swarasam with water 1 in 1000.
(3) as a syrup with lemon juice, ginger juice, fruit juice, sugar or honey according to taste, ½ to 1 tumbler with or without ice.

Action:- Cooling, aromatic stimulant, expectorant, antiseptic, diuretic, diaphoretic and aphrodisic in small doses and sedative, and depressant in large or poisonous doses.

Uses:- It is very much used as a cooling agent in fevers of summer. Combined with musk, it is used as a stimulant and expectorant in pneumonia, asthma and bronchitis. It is used as an aphrodisiac with thambula, milk or as pill with Jatiphala etc. Alone it is not advisable to use it in large doses but combined with other drugs it is a nice flavouring agent and stimulant. Mixed with Chandanam 1 grain to 1 oz. of the paste it is applied as a cooling agent to the body in fevers, itch, prickly heat and burning sensation due to inflamed nerve terminals and is also given internally for inflammatory conditions of the mucous membranes such as leucorrhoea, gonorrhoea etc. It is used as a cooling stimulating eye ointment for relieving inflammation. It is used as an intestinal antiseptic and also as a blood-purifier and tonic. Mixed with thymol it forms a liquid preparation useful in relieving tooth ache.

It is used as an oral antiseptic and fragrant in tooth powders. The liniment made with 1 in 4 of oil is a pleasing application to boils, ulcers and cuts. It may be applied for headache and other painful ailments as a rubefacient and anodyne as an oil or as a paste with water along with Sati in Pitta types and with dry ginger in Vata and Kapha types. The lotion, 1 in 1000, may be used for washing ulcers or mucous membranes. If stronger solutions are desired it may be mixed with Omam water.

42. Katukarohini

Names:-        Latin             Pierorhiza kurrooa
Tamil             Katukarohini
Telugu           Katukarohini
Canarese        Katukarohini
Malayal          Katukarohini
Urdu              Kutki

Katukaa pittajit tiktaa
Katuh Seetaasra Daaha jit
Balaasaa rochakaan hanti
Vishama Jwara naasanee.

Katukarohini checks Pitta. It is tikta and Katu. It alleviates cold,Raktapitta (anaemia) and burning sensation. It checks also Kapha (Balaasa), anorexia, and Malarial fever.

Dose:-5 to 15 grains of the powder to be taken with water or ¼ to 1 tola as a decoction with other drugs.

Action:- Febrifuge, stimulant of the liver and bitter tonic and laxative to children.

Uses:- It is given in dyspepsia, hepatic derangements and jaundice. It is a valuable anti-periodic in low continued fevers and is given to children in worms. It is a mild laxative. It helps to purify the milk of the women (Charaka). In chronic malarial fevers the decoction made as follows is very useful.
Katuki grains 20
Kirata grains 20
Swarnamuki grains 20
Harithaki grains 20
Draksha 1 tola
Guda 2 tolas
Soak all the above as rough powder in water along with Draksha and jaggery over night in a silver or earthen vessel. Strain through cloth and take early in the morning daily. Regulate the dose so as to have only one good motion daily. A decoction of the same may also be given.
The decoction acts as a mild laxative even without Swarnamukhi.
This is very successful in cases where Quinine fails, especially in jaundice of chronic malaria and is also useful in relieving the bad effects of Quinine. Swarnamuki may be omitted in some cases. The decoction of them may be given in divided doses according to constitutions.

43. Khadira

Names:-        Latin             Acacia catechu
Tamil             Karunkali
Telugu           Chendra
Canarese        Kaggali
Malayal          Karungali
Urdu              Khyre

Khardiraa Seetalaa Dantyah
Kandoo Kaasaa ruchi Pramuth
Tiktah Kashaayo Medaghna
Krimi Meda Jwara Vranaam
Switra Sodhaana Pittaasra
Paandu Kushta Kapham Haret.

Khadira is cooling and strengthens the teeth. It checks itching, cough and anorexia. It is bitter and astringent. It checks medas, Krimi Meha, Jwara and Vrana. It is also useful in the treatment of Leucoderma, Swelling, Rakta pitta, Paandu, Kushta and Kapha.
Babboola – Babool tree has similar properties but is a less degree. When Khadira is not available, Babboola bark may be used instead.

Dose:- ¼ to 1 tola of the brk as a decoction prepared in the usual manner.

Action:- Astringent, blood-purifier and tonic.

Uses:- This is very much mentioned in the treatment of leprosy. Thuvaraka seeds are boiled in the decoction of Khadira and the oil so extracted is specially mentioned for use both internally and externally in the treatment of leprosy. (Dose 5 to 15 minims). The decoction of the bark or compounds containing the bark or stem is used as blood-purifier in skin diseases and in syphilis. It is also used in diarrhoea, dysentery ad haemorrhage ad as a general tonic. As an antiseptic gargle for ulcers in the mouth, throat or tonsils or diseases of the gums and teeth, the same decoction is very useful with a little honey.
Externally the decoction forms an astringent lotion for cleaning ulcers and for vaginal irrigation. It is also used in the preparation of tooth powders.
The dry extract of Khadira is called Kadirasaram and is sold in the bazaar as hard pieces, called Kaachu (Kaachukattie). This extract is very useful as a powerful astringent and may be used in the place of the above drug in a very dilute solution or as a powder in combination with other drugs.

44. Kirata

Names:-        Latin             Andrographis paniculata
Tamil             Nilavembu
Telugu           Nelavemu
Canarese       Nelabevu
Malayal          Kiriatu, Nelavepu
Urdu             Chiraita

Kiraatah Saarako rookshah
Seetalah tiktako laghuh
Sannipata Jwara Swaasa
Kapha Pittasra daahanuth
Kaasa Sodha Trishaa Kushta
Jwara Vrana Krimi Pramuth.

Kirata (Chirata) is bitter, rooksha (dry) and light. It is cooling. It liquefies the excretions (Saarakah). It checks Kapha and Pitta. It is useful in the treatment of Sannipaata fevers, Swaasa, Raktapitta, Daaha, Kaasa, Sodha, Thirst, Kushta, Fevers generally, Vrana nd Krimi.

Dose:- 10 to 30 grains of the powder with hot-water or honey or as decoction with Rasna, Bhaarngi, Sunti and castor oil in vaata diseases, with Katuki, Triphala, Draaksha, and sugar in Pitta diseases and with Sunti, Kantakari, Vaasa and honey in Kapha diseases.

Action:- Febrifuge, antiperiodic, antipyretic, hepatic stimulant, blood-purifier and tonic.

Uses:- It has a great reputation as one of the best remedies for Malaria, even better than Quinine. Its advantage probably lies in its action on the liver. It forms 50% of Sudarsana churna, the popular remedy for all kinds of fevers and is one of the chief ingredients of the popular decoctions or powders used in serious ailments due to the vitiation of all the three doshas (Sannipaata) exhibiting the symptoms of Vaata, Pitta or Kapha or their various combinations.
In combination with Seetamsurasa or Sannipaata-bhairava rasa or other fever pills it seems to act better in acute diseases. As an external application for itch or skin diseases, it is used with ghee or oil and powdered pepper.

45. Krishna Jeeraka

Names:-        Latin             Nigella sativa
Tamil             Karunjeerakam
Telugu           Nallajirakara
Canarese       Karijirigae
Malayal          Karunjirakam
Urdu              Kulanjan

“Kaalaajaajeetu Sagudaa
Vishama Jwara Naasanee”
Pratisyaaya Ghreyamva
Kristna Jeerakam
Bhaava Prakaasa

“Black Jeera with jaggery cures malarial fever.” Krishna Jeeraka is tied in a piece of cloth, crushed and smelt in nasal catarrh.

Dose:- 5 to 20 grains of the powder or as a decoction or swarasam of ¼ to 1/8 tola of the seeds ground, with 2 oz. of water strained and given with honey or as a powder in combination with other anthelmintics and antispasmodics.

Action:- Anthelmintic, galactagogue, emmenagogue and carminative.

Uses:- A decoction or swarasam of the seeds is given just after delivery to stimulate the uterus to contract and to increase the secretion of milk. It is one of the chief ingredients of vermicide powders and decoctions. It is mixed with other carminatives such as Chitraka, Hingu etc., and it is given in cases of dyspepsia, loss of appetite, diarrhoea and intermittent fevers. It is given as an emmenagogue in amenorrhoea and dysmenorrhoea and is said ot cause abortion when given in large doses. The seeds are tied in a piece of cloth, crushed between fingers and inhaled in nasal catarrh.

46. Kumari

Names:-        Latin             Aloe vera
Tamil             Sotthukattaalai
Telugu           Kalabanda
Canarese       Naulisara
Malayal          Kattuvaya
Urdu             Gheekuwar

Kumaaree Bhedinee Seetaa
Tiktaa Netryaa Rasaayanee
Madhuraa Brimhanee Balyaa
Vrishyaa Vata Visha Pranuth
Gulmapleeha Yakrit Vriddhi
Kapha Jwara Haree bhavet
Grandhyagni Daghdha Vispota
Pitta Rakta twagaamayaan.

Kumaaree is purgative, cooling, bitter, good for the eyes and is tonic. It is sweet, promotes growth, gives strength, aphrodisiac. It checks Vaata and is anti-toxic. It is useful in the treatment of Gulma, Pleeha vriddhi, Yakrit vriddhi, Jwara, Grandhi, burns blebs, Raktapitta and skin diseases.

Along with pepper and Vishamushti wood in equal parts, it is used in Malaria in 5 grain pills, 2 or 3 times a day. I generally give these pills with decoction of Nirgundi – See below.

Dose:- 1 to 5 grains of the dry extract (Moosaam-baram) made into a pill.

Action:- Liver stimulant, cathartic, emmenagogue and vermifuge.

Uses:- It stimulates the mammary glands, liver and the pelvic organs giving rise to abortion. The milk of mother acquires purgative quality. It enters into the composition of purgative and emmenagogue pills. It has a griping action. It is generally given in combinatien with equal parts of the dry extract, Kasisa Sinduram, Hingu and Tankanam known as Rajapravartani vati. Externally it is used as a paste, which when dry acts like a tight bandage and decreases swelling. It secure rest for the part applied. It is antiseptic and antiphlogistic.

47. Kuraasaani Yavaani

Names:-        Latin             Hyoscyamus niger
Tamil             Kuraasaani omam
Telugu           Kuraasaani omam
Canarese        Kurasino omam
Malayal          Krosani omam
Urdu              Kusaasaani ajwain

Paaraseeka Yavaaneethu
Yavaanee sadrusaagunaih
Viseshaat paachanee ruchyaa
Graahinee maadinee guruh.

Paaraseeka Yavaani (Kuraasaani Omum – or Yavaani) is similar to omum generally, but it is better as a digestive (paachaanee) and for improving the taste (Ruchyaa). It is heavy (guru), and intoxicating (Maadinee).

Dose:- 5 to 15 grains as a swarasam or decoction with honey or sugar and 1/8 to ¼ tola for single administration.

Action:- Anhelmintic, sedative, anodyn and intestinal antiseptic.

Uses:- This is used in cases of colic, generally in cases of indigestion in children. Mothers give it with human milk to children, who do not sleep well at night. It is much safer than opium. It does not constipte nor lessen the secretion of urine. In elderly people suffering from pain or hard breathing due to asthma, it may be given combined with other drugs in order to produce sleep and relieve suffering. It is also used along with other anthelmintics and purgatives. It allays pain due to griping. On the whole, it is a safe anodyne used in proper doses. In large doses it is a poison and acts like Dhathura.

48. Kushtam

Names:-        Latin            Aplotaxis auriculata
Tamil            Chengalvakoshtam
Telugu          Chengalvakoshtam
Canarese       Koshtam
Malayal         Kottam
Urdu             Kust, Koshtam

Kushtamushnam Katu, Swaadu
Sukralam tiktakam laghu
Hanti Vaatasra Veesarpa
Kaasakushta marut Kaphaan

Kushtaa (Changalvakoshta) is heating, pungent and sweet. It increases sperm. It is also bitter and light. It checks vaatarakta, Visarpa, Kaasaa and Kushta.

Dose:- 5 to 15 grains with honey.

Action:- Stimulant, antispasmodic and tonic.

Uses:- As a stimulant, it is given in spasmodic diseases such as cough, asthma, cholera and deranged digestion. As an alternative, it is sued in chronic skin diseases and rheumatism. Locally, a paste of it made in rose water is applied to swollen hands and feet and to swelled abdome in obesity ad a a cooling lotion to sprains and contusions. As a reliever of headache, it has been adveated by Kautilya in his Artha sastra. Koshtam, Vidanga and dravanti are to be powdered and used as a snuff. Vangasena advises a lepa or application of the paste obtained by grinding the roots of Kushta and Eranda with kanjika to be applied for headaches. Externally, it is used as an astringent ointment for ulcers and along with Maadhiphala juice ad honey as an ointment for the face. Charcoal made of Kushta root is mixed with oil and applied to exzematous patches.

The proper drug is not available easily in the south and therefore my experience with this drug is very little. It is much used in asthma, hysteria, epilepsy, insanity and other nervous diseases. It is one of the ingredients of the prepared oils and dusting powders, and is mixed both for its fragrance and antiseptic and soothing properties. Along with Vacha, it is highly recommended in epilepsy (Charaka).

49. Kutaja Thwak

Names:-        Latin             Holarrhena antidysentrica
Tamil             Veppaalai
Telugu           Kodisapaala
Canarese        Kodasige
Malayal          Kutakapaala
Urdu              Indrajav

Kutajah Katuko Rooksho
Deepanah tuvaro himah
Arsoteesaara Pittaasra
Kapha Tristnaama Kushta jit.

Kutaja is pungent and also astringent. It is dry and cooling. It improves appetite and checks Kapha. It is useful in the treatment of Piles, Diarrhoea, Raktapitta, thirst, Aama and Kapha.

Dose:- 10 to 60 grains of the powder of the bark with honey or sugar or thakram (buttermilk) or ½ to 1 tola of the bark boiled with 8 times the quantity of water, reduced to one-fourth, filtered and taken with honey. Seeds – same as above.

Action:- Antiperiodic and anidysenteric.

Uses:- It has earned much reputation as a specific in cases of dysentery and is used in the place of Ipecacuanha. It is also said to be very useful in cases of Raktapitta. Chakradutta recommends a paste of the bark to be used in cases of kushta.

50. Laaksha

Names:-        Latin             Coccus lacca
Tamil             Kombarakku
Telugu           Lacca
Canarese       Arakku
Malayal          Kolarakku
Urdu              Lac

Laaksha Varnyaa himaa balyaa
Snigdhaacha tuvaraa laghuh
Anushnaa Kapha Pittaasra
Hikkaa Kaasa Jwara Pramuth
Vranorakshata Veesarpa
Krimi Kushta Gadaapahaa.

Laksha improves complexion. It is cooling. It gives strength. It is snigdha (lubricating). It is astringent and light. It is not heating. It checks Kapha, Raktapitta, Hikka, Kaasa, Jwara. It is useful in the treatment of ulcers, Urakshata (consumption with blood spitting), Veesarpa (Erysipelas), Krimi (Vermicide) and Kushta.

Dose:- 5 to 15 grains to be taken with honey or ghee or Kushmaanda swarasam and sugar.

Action:- Astringent, haematinic, blood-purifier and tonic.

Uses:- In Raktapitta or bleeding from any portion of the body, the powder is given either alone or in combination with other drugs. It probably produces chemical changes in blood which increase coagulation. It is used as a specific for haemorrhage, in uterine disorders and in epistaxis or bleeding from the nose and lungs. It is also used in chronic dysentery and anaemia. In case of Urakshata, it is given internally with honey, with much success. The oil medicated with this is considered to be much useful in cases of all chronic fevers for external use and massage.

50. Lankesa

Names:-        Latin             Piper cubeba
Tamil             Vaalmilagu
Telugu           Chalavamiriyaalu
Canarese        Gantamenasu
Malayal          Vaalmilagu
Urdu              Dhumkimirch; Kavabchini

Dose:- 5 to 20 grains of the powder to be given with cocoanut water or with any other diuretics. 5 to 15 minims of the oil.

Action:- Cooling in small doses, aromatic, diuretic, urinary antiseptic, carminative, antiseptic and stimulant to mucous membranes.

Uses:- It is very largely used to alleviate sore throat in pill or powder mixed with sugar and honey. As a digestive it is used with betel leaf. In Gonorrhoea and in bronchitis it acts as a stimulant to mucous membranes and as an antiseptic. In large doses, it may irritate. It is also used as an oral anispetic.

51. Lavangam

Names:-        Latin             Caryophyllus aromaticus
Tamil             Lavangam, Kraambu
Telugu           Lavangaalu
Canarese        Lavanga
Malayal          Kariambu
Urdu              Loung

Lavanga Kusumam Hridyam
Seetalam Pittanaasanam
Cakshushyam Vishahritvrishyam
Maamgalyam Moordhwarogahrit

Lavanga is pleasing and cooling. It checks Pitta. It is good for the eyes. It is anti-toxic and a aphrodisiac. It is auspicious. It is useful in the treatment of disease of head and neck.

Dose:- 1 to 15 grains of the powder to be taken with honey or in combination with other drugs.

Action:- Internally – Carminative, aromatic, antispasmodic, expectorant and stimulant. Externally – rubefacient, local anaesthetic and antiseptic.

Uses:- Intenally, it stimulates circulation and raises the blood-pressure. It promotes digestion and nutrition and relieves gastric and intestinal colic and spasm. Its external use relieves local pain and specially the pain of the head. A paste of them applied to the forehead and to the nose is a popular remedy in headache and coryza. Kept in the mouth, it is an oral antiseptic and stimulant to the throat. It increases the secretion and helps to relieve congestion of the throat. It is used in combination with sugar or kalkanda to promote expectoration from the lungs. It is included in tooth powders for its fragrance and antiseptic properties. It stimulates the skin, salivary glands, kidneys, liver and bronchial mucous membranes. It is a valuable home remedy and is used as a condiment to improve digestion. In large doses, it is an irritant.

52. Lodhra

Names:-        Latin             Symplocos racemosa
Tamil             Vellaloddi pattai
Telugu           Lodduga
Canarese        Pachettu
Malayal          Pachoti
Urdu              Lodh

Lodhra dwayantu tuvaram
Chakshusyam Seetalam laghu
Ateesaara aruchi Visha
Pradaraani Vinaasayet.

Both the Lodhas (white and red) are astringent, cooling and light. Lodhra is good for the eyes. It is useful in the treatment of Ateesaara, Visha and Pradaara.

Dose:- ½ to 1 oz. of the bark as a decoction boiled with 8 times the quantity of water, reduced to one fourth, strained and taken with honey.

Action:- Astringent and uterine tonic.

Uses:- It is highly recommended as a specific in cases of Pradara and other uterine affections. For its astringent property, it is very much used in cases of dysentery and haemorrhage. It is recommended as a dusting powder for wounds. It is also mentioned in Kushta and diseases of the eye. The decoction is used as a gargle with a little honey in relaxed uvula and bleeding gums and as a wash for ulcers. Applied as a plaster it is said to promote maturation of boils.

53. Madhu

Names:-        Latin            Mel
Tamil            Thene
Telugu          Thene
Canarese       Jenutuppa
Malayal         Thane
Urdu             Shahadh

Vaatalam guru Seetamcha
Raktapitta Kaphapaham
Sandhaatru cchedanam rooksham
Kashaaya Madhuram Madhu.

Madhu (honey) is guru, dry (rooksha), astringent and sweet. It is cooling (seetam). It is useful in the treatment of Raktapitta and Kapha. It is very good for joining the edges of cut wounds and for cutting proud flesh in ulcers.

Dose:- 1 to 4 drams with water for a single dose and 5 to 30 minims for repeated administration.

Action:- Astringent, antiseptic, nutritive, aphrodisiac and tonic.

Uses:- It is a pleasant vehicle for other medicines of the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. It itself is reputed to remove phlegm. For its nutritive properties and its pleasat taste it is used in all lehyams. It is also given mixed with betel leaf juice as a Vehicle for other medicines.

It is specially recommended in Kapha diseases when phlegm is predominant. Taken early in the morning with equal parts of cold water it is reputed to cure obesity. It is not contraindicated in diabetes according to Ayurveda. Mixed with milk and ghee, it is specially recommended in consumption as a tissue builder. The same is also given as an aphrodisiac along with Gudoochisatwam, Vidaari or Aswagandha. It is given to children along with fresh juice of betel leaves as a carminative. To the new born baby, a few drops may be given every two or three hours as a diet for first few days. It is also recommended as an antiseptic dressing for burns and cuts. It is used either alone or mixed with ghee. Made into a paste with a little chunnam, it is used as a poultice for abscesses. Honey ad betel leaf juice are both said to conain certain valuable Vitamins and honey is said to posses, hygroscopic property which destroys microbes.

54. Madhusnuhi

Names:-        Latin            Smilax china
Tamil            Parangi pattai
Telugu          Pharangichekka
Canarese       Chinipavu
Malayal         Pavu
Urdu             Chopcheeni

Dweepaantara Vacha Kinchit
Tiktoshna Vahnideeptikrit
Vibandhaadhmaana soolaghnow
Sakrit mootra Visodhinee
Vaatavyaadheena pasmaara
Munmaadam tanuvedanaam
Vyapohati Viseshena
Phirangaamaya naasanee

Dweepaantaravacha (Madhushnuhi) is slightly bitter and slightly heating. It improves the appetite. It removes constipation (Vibandha), checks distention of the abdomen and colic. It purifies faecal matter and urine. It is useful in the treatment of Vaata Vyaadhis, Apasmaara (Epilepsy). Insanity, pains in the body (tanuvedana). It is specially useful in the treatment of Syphilis (Phirangaamaya).

Dose:- ¼ to 1 tola of the powder with ghee and sugar or in combination with other drugs.

Action:- General tonic.

Uses:- It is very much used in late stages of syphil is and leprosy as a tonic and alternative. It enters into the composition of lehams intended for tissue-building and as aphrodisiacs. It is also used in scrofula and chronic rheumatism.

55. Madhoochista

Names:-        Latin            Cera flaa (Bees wax)
Tamil            Thane mezhugu
Telugu          Mainam
Canarese       Jenumena
Malayal          Mezhugu
Urdu              Moum

Sikdhakam Snigdha Madhuram
Bhootaghnam bhagna Sandhikrit
Hanit Veesarpa Kandwaadeen
Vranaropana muttamam
Bhedanam picchilam Swaadu
Kushta Vaatasraji mridu.

Madhoochista (Sikdhakam) is lubricating (Oily-Snigdha), sweet and soft (mrudu). It check infection (Bhootaghnam) and unites broken parts. (Bhagna Sandhikrit) of bone. It checks Veesarpa (Erysipelas), itching, etc. It is the best for healing ulcers. It loosens bowels; it is sticky. It is useful in the treatment of Kushta and Vaata Rakta.

Action:- Antiseptic, emollient, lubricant and is used mostly externally in ointments.

Uses:- Its chief property is to solidify oils at ordinary temperature. It has got a special reputation in promoting union in fractures and in giving a healthy tone to the skin. It makes a soothing ointment to chronic ulcers.

56. Manjishta

Names:-        Latin             Rubia cordifolia
Tamil             Manjishti
Telugu           Manjishta
Canarese        Manjishta
Malayal          Manchatti
Urdu              Manjit

Manishta Madhuraa tiktaa
Kashaayaaswaravarna krith
Gururushna Visha sleshma
Sodha Yonyaakshi Karnaruk
Raktaateesaara Kushtaasra
Visarpa Vrana Meha nuth

Manjishta is sweet, bitter and astringent. It improves voice and complexion. It is heavy. It checks sleshma. It is useful in the treatment of Visha, Sodha (swelling), diseases of the uterus, eye, ears, dysentery (Raktaateesaara), Kushta, disease of the blood, Veesarpa, Vrana, and Meha.

Dose:- 10 to 30 grains of the drug with 1 or 2 oz. of water or along with other drugs.

Action:- Blood-purifier.

Uses:- It is a reputed blood-purifier and is used in skin diseases and in some cases of leprosy and leucoderma. Its internal administration is believed to alter discoloration of the body and to improve complexion (Vyangeshu Manjishta – Chakradutta). It is also said that it works well in eliminating the poison from the body. Sushruta prescribes a decoction of Manjishta with Chandanam in cases of Manjishtameha. It is used as an antiseptic and coloring aget in ointments as in Pindataila and in the preparation of hair oils.

57. Maricham

Names:-        Latin            Piper nigrum
Tamil            Milagu
Telugu          Mirayaalu
Canarese       Menasu
Malayal         Kurumilagu
Urdu             Kalimirch

Maricham Katukah teekshnam
Deepanam Kapha Vaata jit
Ushnam Pittakaram rooksham
Swaasa soola Krimim haret.

Maricham (pepper) is pungent, acute, and improving appetite. It checks Kapha and Vaata. It is heating. It promotes Pitta and is dry (rooksha). It is useful in the treatment of Swaasa, Sula (colic), and Krimi.

Doses:- 5 to 15 grains of the powder to be taken with honey or ghee or sugar or jaggery, or ¼ to ½ tola as a decoction boiled in the usual manner with a little honey or ghee or as a rasam or chutney prepared with lemon juice, tamarind and other condiments.

Actions:- Febrifuge, antiperodic, antipyretic, stimulant to heart, carminative, anthelmintic and parasiticide. In small doses, it is a urinary antiseptic and in large doses an irritant.

Uses:- It is very commonly used in the early stages of all feves and also as a preventive of further troubles in cold, catarrh and influenza. It is a very good digestive and carminative. Hence it is given in cass of diarrhoea, dyspepsia, latulence and atony of the stomach. It relieves suffering in intermittent fevers by causing perspiration. It also seems to have a specific action in curing Malaria. In cough, cold asthma and other pulmonary affections, it is given as a powder with ghee, sugar and honey or as decoction with milk, like coffee or tea. It acts as a stimulant to the heart and increases expectoration. As an anthelmintic, it is given along with other drugs. It is also given internally as a pill along with Aristolochia bracteata (Aadutinnapaalai) in doses of 5 grains of the powder, with the mass of the leaf of about a marble size, in eczema and syphilis of the three stages. The same prescription is used as a secret remedy in cases of cholera and in appendicitis by some physicians. Milk boiled with pepper and taken at night is a excellent recipe for improving blood (“Marichaikvathitham dugdam pane raathrow prashasyathe, rasaayanam thena vriddhi syaathi” Haareetha.) It is advisable to give it in elephantiasis daily. In gonorrhoea and gleet it acts as a stimulant and urethral antiseptic in small doses and may be given along with milk and kalkanda churnam.

Externally, it is a local irritant and causes burning sensation of the skin. It is used to relieve headache and is applied as a pste with water comfortably hot or ground with equal parts of rice and a little water and applied as a hot paste to the forehead. A local application relieves pain due to neuritis. In night-blindness a paste of pepper with curd is recommended for application into the eyes as an ointment by Vagbhata. In skin diseases, particularly eczema, pepper powder is applied with ghee or kuppameni leaf juice or as an ointment made up of Aadutinnapaalai (Gadidegadapaaku and butter.)

58. Musta

Names:-         Latin             Cyperus rotundus
Tamil             Koraikilangu
Telugu          Tungamustalu
Canarese         Badramushtie
Malayal          Muttangya
Urdu              Nagarmotha

Mustam Katugraahi
Tiktam deepana paachanam
Kashaayam Kapha Pittaasra
Trut Jwaraaruchi Jantunut.

Musta is cooling, pungent, astringent, and bitter. It is graahi (constrictive). It improves appetite and is also digestive. It checks Kapha, Pitta and Raktapitta. It is useful in the treatment of thrist, fever, anorexia and Krimi.

Dose:- 5 to 15 grains of the powder to be taken with honey or ¼ to 1 tola to be taken as a decoction or infusion prepared in the usual way or ½ tola boiled with a seer of water or soaked over-night as a seetakashaaya.

Action:- Diaphoretic, demulcent, diuretic, aromatic, stimulent and galactagogue.

Uses:- In fevers pitta of type i.e. when predominant symptoms are thirst, burning sensation of the body, delirium, jaundiced eyes etc., its use is specially indicated. It is also given in cholera for suppression of urine. The drink is recommended as a diuretic and for relieving thirst in fevers and in diabetes of pitta type or it may be given as Shadanga kashaya (“Ghanachandana suntyambu parpatoseer saadhita” – Vagbhat.)

It is used as an ingredient of dusting and bathing powders on account of its fine fragrance and also of its antiseptic and Wormicide properties. It is very popular with the ladies of South India for its fragrance. It also forms a component of hair oils.

59. Naagakesaram

Names:-        Latin             Mesua ferrea
Tamil             Sirunagappu
Telugu          Naagakesaramulu
Canarese          Naagakesara
Malayal          Nagappu
Urdu              Naagakesar

Naagakesaram alposhnam
Laghu tiktam Kaphaapaham
Vastiruk Visha Vaataasra
Kandhooghnam Sopha naasanam.

Naagakesaram is slightly heating. It is bitter and light. It checks Kapha. It is useful in the treatment of diseases of the urinary bladder, poisons, Vaatarakta, itching and swelling.

Dose:- 10 to 30 grains of the powder to be taken with honey or sugar and butter.

Action:- Cooling, carminative and aromatic.

Uses:- It enters into the composition of almost all lehams of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia, a a digestive, carminative and aromatic. It is a mild febrifuge. In bleeding piles and dysentery attended with blood, the powder is given, with butter and sugar. In Swetapradara or leucorrhoea, a paste of this with curd followed by a diet of rice and butter-milk is recommended by Bhaavaprakaash.

60. Navaasaaram

Names:-        Latin             Ammonii Chloride
Tamil             Navaacaaram
Telugu          Navaasaaramu
Canarese          Navaasaagara
Malayal          Navasaram
Urdu              Navasaagar

Rasendra jaararam loha,
Draavanam jatharaagni Krith
Gulma Pleehasya soshaghnam
Bhutktamaamsaadi jaaranam
Biddakhyamcha Tridoshaghnam
Choolikaa lavanam matam

Navaasaaram is useful for digesting mercury and for liquefying loha. It improves digestion. It is useful in the treatment of Gulma, Pleeha, diseases of the mouth and wasting of the body (sosha). It helps in digesting food uch as flesh. That which is called Bida is tridoshaghnam. It is also called choolikaa lavana.

Doses:- 5 to 15 grains to be taken with the decoction of Gokshura or any other diuretics.

Action:- Diuretic and hepatic tonic.

Uses:- As a diuretic, it is used in liver disorders, ascites, retention of urine etc. Mixed with chunnam, it evolves ammonia, which in solution with water is applied as an external application to injured joints and to corpion bites. It is used in the preparation of Sankhadraava and Swarnavanga. It is also used externally as a paste with cow’s urine or lime water or lemon juice along with Sunti and Devadaru, renewed every 4 hours to relieve deep seated inflammation, and poison.

61. Nimba

Names:-        Latin             Melia azadirachta
Tamil             Vembu
Telugu          Vepa
Canarese       Bevu
Malayal         Vepu
Urdu              Neem

Nimbah Seeto laghu graahi
Katupaako Agni Vaatamuth.
Vrana Pitta Kapha Chardi
Kushta hrillaasa meha nuth.

Nimba (neem) is light, cooling and constrictive. It is pungent by Vipaaka. It checks heat and Vaata. It is used in the treatment of Vrana, vitiation of Pitta and Kapha, Vomiting, Kushta and Hrillaasa – Vomiting Sensation.

Dose:- ¼ to 1 tola as a decoction boiled with 8 times the quantity of water and reduced to one fourth.

3 to 10 minims of the oil with milk and sugar or in a capsule or pill.
¼ to 1 oz of the juice of the tender leaves with honey.
As a kalka of the leaves with salt and peppet of a marble size.

Of a mixture of root, stem, leaf, flower ad fruit crushed together, in dose of ¼ to ½ tola as an infusion or decoction with honey or sugar.

A handful of the leaves to the boiled with 40 to 80 oz. of water for an enema.

Action:- Febrifuge, antiperiodic, antipyretic, anthelmintic, antiseptic, blood-purifier and bitter tonic and specific in leprosy.

Uses:- The bark is used in intermittent and remittent fevers, general debility and convalascence. It is a reputed blood-purifier and hence it is given as a specific in cases of Kushta (Leprosy), Vaatarakta and other diseases of the blood. The tender leaves ground into mass with pepper and salt are given as a carminative and anthelmintic and in leprosy. The juice of the leaves is used with honey in Kaamala or jaundice and worms. The seeds are anthelmintic and alterative. The oil extracted from it is bitter, anthelmintic and stimulant and has a specific action in leprosy both internally and externally. The toddy which naturally oozes out of the tree is used as a tonic and also in leprosy. The gum is used by some in chronic gonorrhoea.

A decoction of the leaves with a little salt is very good for a enema to expel worms and also to remove wind. The decoction of the bark is used as an antiseptic lotion for cleaning ulcers. The leaves are disinfectant and local stimulant and are used as poultices to indolent glands and swellings. The paste of the leaves, ground with turmeric, is used as a popular remedy for ulcers in Small-pox. The foam obtained by churning the tender shoots with cold or ice water is applied to the body to reduce the high temperature in fevers. The external application of the oils is antiseptic and healing. This is very useful in leprosy.

Neem leaves are used dry in libraries to keep off book-eating worms. They are placed in between the books in the shelves.

62. Nirgundi (Sindhuvaara)

Names:-        Latin             Vitex negundo
Tamil             Nochhi
Telugu           Vaavili
Canarese       Nokki
Malayal          Nochhi
Urdu             Shembali

Dose:- ½ to 1 oz. of the Swarasam to be taken with honey. ½ to 2 tolas of the leaves as a docoction boiled in the usual manner or the leaves made into a mass with pepper and taken in doses of 5 to 15 grains three times a day.

Action:- Alternative, antiperiodic, antipyretic and anodyne.

Uses:- The decoction with pepper or the swarasam is used by some as a specific in Malaria. It is also used in colic, dyspepsia, rheumatism, and worms. The crushed mass is tied to the head in heaviness of the head and in fevers of the complicated or nervous type.

The boiled leaves are used for fomentation of painful joints in rhematism. The joints are bathed in the hot water in which the leaves were boiled. The oil prepared with the Swarasa of the leaves is very popular for relieving pains. Taludaali ilai (Prasaarini) in Madras is also very much used for similar purposes externally and is very effective in relieving pains of acute rheumatism.

The herb is available in hedges very commonly all over India, Nirgundi is described in Bhaavaprakaash, Dhanvantari Nighuntu, Raja Nighutu, Charaka, Susruta and Vaghbhata.

Sindhu Varas sveta Pushpah
Sindhukassindhu Vaarakah
Neela Pushpee to Nirgundee
Sephaalee suvahaacha sa (Bhaava Prakaasa).

It is generally described as having Tikta, Katu and Kashaya tastes and as Vaata and Kapha Hara and having Krimighna properties. Chakradatta describes it as useful in Kapha feves.

Sindhuvaara Dala Quaadhah
Soshanam Kaphaje Jware

Dhanvantari Nighantu says that it curses enlarged spleen. I have been using it exclusively in Malarial fever from 1927. Recently, a forest officer from Assam published an article in the Illustrated Weekly of India, that Nirgundi is available in abundance in Assam and that the tribesmen use it very efficiently in blackwater fever.

Sushruta recommends its use in Rakta Pitta. Charaka includes it in Krimighna Group. (Sutra – ch.4) The following Recipe has been found by me to be very useful in Malaria.

Take of:-       Nirgundi leaves – 10 Tolas.
Pepper seeds powdred – 1 Tola.
Gudam (Jaggery) – 10 Tolas.
Water – 40 Tolas (1-lb)
Boil and reduce to 1 Tola  4- ozs.

Give one or two ozs as a dose, 2 or 3 times a day. The bowels should be kept free by any medicne previously or an enema may be given. An over dose of the medicine does not have any bad effects. It is most useful in Malaria of Vata Kapha type in which the predominant symptoms are severe chill and brain symptoms Three or four doses a day may be taken for the first 3 or 4 days and then 2 doses a day may be repeated. In almost all cases, the fever subsides with 4 days. In alternate fevers, a second attack may be much less severe and on the third turn day, the temperature does not usually rise.

Diet – Very light liquid diet or absolute starvation, giving only water to drink, is the best. Barley water, fruit juice, thin butter milk may be give till the fever subsides.

Remarks:- The plant grows in the poorest soils and even in gravelly places. A branch is cut and planted in the rainy season and it requires no further attention. It does not require watering in the hot whether. It is not destroyed by goats and cattle and so it is used for edges in Southern India. Nirgundi has 2 varieties – white and black accoding to the colour of the leaf and flower. The leaf is Trifoliate or Penta foliate. It is very popular here for its Vaatahara properties. Water boiled with the drug is used for baths for women after confinement. The drug is best used as a fresh or dry leaf in decoction. I do not therefore recommend its use as a commercial product as it can be collected locally and can be easily grown and made popular all over the country.

63. Parpatakam

Names:-        Latin            Mollugo cerviana
Tamil            Parpaatakam
Telugu          Parpaatakamu
Canarese       Parpatakam
Malayal         Parpatakam
Urdu             Hazardhana

Parpatohanti Pittaasra
Jwara trishaa Kapha bhramaan
Samgraahi seetalah tikto
Daaha nuth Vaatalo laghuh

Parpataka is bitter and light. It is cooling. It is a constrictor. It checks Kapha and it increases Vaata. It is useful in the treatment of Raktapitta. Jwara, Trishna, Bhrama (Giddiness), Daaha (burning sensation).

Dose:- ½ to 2 tolas as a decoction with or without sugar or as a compound with other drugs (Refer Shadanga Kashaaya).

Action:- Cooling, diuretic, febrifuge, relieves thrist and burning sensation of the body.

Uses:- It is often used for the same purpose as and along with Musta in high fevers (Refer Musta No 61). This drug alone is enough in Pitta fevers. (Eka parpataka sreshtah pitta jwara vinaasanah. – Chakradutta). Water boiled with 1 in 120 parts nd cooled, or water in which the drug is soaked overnight is an excellent drink for relieving urethral burning sensation and acute inflammation in cystisis and gonorrhoea. It is also recommended in vomiting along with honey.

64. Patola

Names:-        Latin            Trichosanthes dioica
Tamil            Peppudal
Telugu          Chedupotla
Canarese       Kaipotala
Malayal         Padolam
Urdu             Kichunda

Kaphaasrik Kandu Kushtaam
Jwara daahaacha naasayeth

Patola in pungent, and penetrating. It checks sevee heat. It is useful in the treatmen of Kapha, diseases of the blood, itching, Kushta, Fevers and burning sensation.

Dose:- ½ to 2 tolas to be taken as a decoction with sugar or honey.

Action:- Febrifuge, blood-purifier and bitter tonic.

Uses:- The decoction is much used as a febrifuge and antiperiodic. It purifies the blood. The green leaves are advised to be taken as a vegetable in cases of poisons and after fevers. In the treatment of small-pox, the decoction is much recommended by Bhaavpprakaash. The properties and uses are almost the same as Nimba and is used in compound decoctions for all kinds of fevers.

65. Patrakam

Names:-        Latin            Cinnamomum zeylanicum
Tamil            Lavangapatri
Telugu          Aakupatri
Canarese       Lavangapatri
Malayal         Lavangpatram
Urdu             Tejpat

Patrakam Kapha Vaatarso
Hrillaasaa rochakaa paham.
Dhanvanthari Nighantu.

Patrakam checks Kapha and Vaata. It is used in the treatment of watering from mouth and in anorexia.

Dose:- 10 to 60 grains of the powder with honey or as a decoction along with other drugs.

Action:- Aromatic, mild febrifuge, mild expectorant and diuretic.

Uses:- It is rarely used alone. Bu, it enters into the composition of most of the lehams, where it is chiefly added to give aroma. It is also included in febrifuge and diuretic decoctions.

66. Pippali

Names:-        Latin            Piper longum
Tamil            Thippili
Telugu          Pippallu
Canarese      Thippili
Malayal         Thippili
Urdu             Pippal

Pippalee Katukaa Swaaduh
Hima Snigiha tridosha jith
Trit Jwarodara jantwaana
Naasaneecha rasaayanees.
Dhanvanthari Nighantu.

Pippali is pungent and sweet. It is cooling and oily. It checks the three doshas. It is useful in the treatment of thirst, fever, abdominal diseases and worns. It is also useful as a tonic.

Dose:- 5 to 15 grains as powder with honey or ghee or ghee and sugar.
or 10 to 60 grains as decoction or boiled with milk,
or with equal parts of Saindava lavanam and ghee,
or with water, milk and sugar or butter milk in increasing doses starting with 5, increasing daily by 5, till the number reaches 50 and reducing by 5 daily (Vardhamana pippali-Charaka).

Action:- Digestive, carminative, stimulant, febrifuge, alternative and tonic.

Use:- In consumption and in ascites goat’s or cows milk is recommended to be used, boiled with Pippali churnam. It makes the milk more easily assimilable. In piles it is used with butter-milk. It is milder than Sunthi in relieving abdominal distension or pain. It is less pungent than pepper. It is used alone wherever a milder drug is required and a combination of the above two, when more powerful action is required. It is generally combined with Sunti for Vaataharatwam and with pepper for Kaphaharatwam. Itself, is mainly Pittahara and is used alone in kevala pitta vikaara. The combination of the three is therefore very popularly used in all the three conditions.

67. Pippalimoolam (Root of the above).

Katooshnam Pippalee moolm
Sleshma Sanghaata naasanam
Vaatcchittikaram hanti
Krimeen Vahni pradeeptikrit.
Dhanvanthari Nighantu.

Pippali moolam is pungent and heating. It checks accumulations of Kapha and Vaata. It improves appetite. It is useful in the treatment of Krimi.

Dose:- Action and Uses similar to the above but milder.

It is more a favourite of pregnant women and is used both in pregnancy and after child-birth. Its uses are probably digestive and tonic. It is reputed to be Vaataharam. As an anthelmintic, it is given with goat’s urine (Vaagbhata). As a galactagogue, it is given along with milk and sugar (Maricham pippaleemoolam ksheeram ksheera Vivriddhaye – Haareetha). In Nidraa naasa, Haritha prescribes a powder of this to be taken with Gudam.

68. Punarnava

Names:-        Latin            Boerhaavia diffusa
Tamil            Chattarani
Telugu          Galijeru
Canarese       Gajjeru
Malayal         Taludama
Urdu             Peescopra

Punarnavaa Bhavedushna
Tiktaa rooksha Kaphaapaha
Sasopha Paandu hrid roga
Kaasorakshata Soolajit.
Dhanvanthari Nighantu.

Punarnava is bitter and heating. It is non oily (dry). It checks Kapha. It is useful in the treatment of diseases with swelling (sasopha), Paandu (Anaemia), Hridroga (heart diseases), cough, blood spitting (Urakshata), and colic (soola).

Dose:- 10 to 60 grains of the powder with hot-water.
Or ¼ to 1 tola as a decoction,
or ½ to 2 tolas of the juice of fresh root or the swarasam of the dry root.

Action:- Diuretic, leaf – laxative as a sakam (curry).

Uses:- Its very name is sophagni (that which cures swellings). It is used in a variety of diseases and is one of the most useful drugs in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia. It is useful both in heart and kidney diseases and remarkable results are observed, swellings in the hands, feet or face or on the whole body disappearing promptly. The patient is also put on salt free diet during the treatment. The leaf used as a vegetable removes constipation. I have given below the summary of its uses as found in Vanoushadi Gunadharpana.

1.            A paste of the root with Dadhimanda (water floating on curd) may be used as an application for all kinds of kushta.
(Chikitsa-Ch. 7. Charaka).

2.            Decoction prepared with punarnava in Asmari.
(Chikitsa-Ch. 7. Sushruta).

3.            Either the decoction or the kalka of Punarnava with Sunthi followed by an anupanam of milk in Sotha.
(Chikitsa-Ch. 23. Sushruta).

4.            Powder of the root with honey in Mushika Visha (Rat-bite).
(Kalpa-Ch. 6. Sushruta).

5.            Swetapunarnava and Dathura in Alarkavisha (Rabid dog-bite).
(Kalpa-Ch. 6. Sushruta).

6.            Milk boiled with the root in Jwara.
(Uttara Ch. 36. Sushruta).

7.            Ghee medicated with milk, Punarnava kashaya and yashti-kalka is nutrient and removes intoxication.
(Madaatyaya Chikitsa-Vrinda).

8.            ½ pala of the kalka taken with milk for half a month or two months or six months or one year as a Rasayanam.

9.            Ghee medicated with the kalka and kashaaya of Punarnava for Sotha.
(Sotha chikitsa-Chakradutta).

10.        The root of Sweta punarnava as a decoction for apakva Vidradhi.
(Vidradhi Ch. Chakrudutta).

11.        The root taken with water obtained by washing rice for Visha.
(Visha chikitsa-Chakradutta).

12.        Urakshata chikitsa – As in Sopha. (Haareetha).

13.        Decoction of Punarnava for producing sleep.
(Chikitsa-Ch. 16. Hareetha).

14.        Decoction of Sathi, Sunthi and Punarnava used continuously for seven nights in Aamavata (Bhaavaprakaash).

15.        Use of Punarnava in eye-diseases:-

“Dugdhena kandoom kshoudrena netrasravancha sarpishaa Pushpam, thailena thimiram, kanjikaena nisaandhatham, Punarnavaa harathyaasu bhaaskarasthimiram yatha.”

With milk in itching of the eyes, with honey in discharges, with ghee in pushpam (white patch), with oil in timira (Immature cataract), with rice-washings in night-blindness-Phnarnava is useful in eye diseases.

16.        The powder with milk for Pitta fevers and with thaambula for Chathurthika fevers.
(Jwara chikitsa-Vangasena).

17.        Oil medicated with Sweta punarnava to be rubbed in the foot in Vaatakantaka.
(Vaatavyaadhi chikitsa-Vangasena).

18.        The leaves as saaka for amavaata.(Amaavaata chikitsa-Vangasena)

69. Raktachandanam.

Names:-        Latin             Pterocarpus santalinus
Tamil             Sigappu chandanam
Telugu           Errachandanamu
Canarese        Raktachandana
Malayal          Raktachandanam
Urdu              Sandalai suruk

Raktam Seetam Guru Swaadu
Chardi trishnaasra pittahrit
Tiktam netrahitam Vrishyam
Jwara Vrana Vishaapaham.

Raktachandana is sweet and bitter. It is heavy (guru) and cooling. It is useful in the treatment for Chardi, Trisna, Rakta, Pitta, Jwara, Vrana and Visha. It is good for the eye. It is an aphrodisiac.

Dose:- ¼ to 1 tola as decoction.

Action:- Refrigerant, antiperiodic, antipyretic, febrifuge, astringent and bitter tonic.

Uses:- Properties almost the same as Sweta chandanam (Refer page 22).

It is used in many fever mixtures including mixtures for plague (D. Gopalacharlu’s Haimaadi Paanakam) and it is probably specially useful in relieving thirst and burning sensation of the body. It is also specially mentioned in Visarpa (Erysipelas) and as a blood-purifier in skin diseases.

70. Rasna

Names:-        Latin             Alpinia officinarum
Tamil             Chittarattai
Telugu           Sannaraashtramu
Canarese        Rasagadde
Malayal          Aratta
Urdu              Kulanjan

Raasnaa tiktoshnagurvee syaath
Visha Vaataasra Kaasajit
Sopha Vaatodara sleshma
Samanyaamasya paachanee.

Rasna is bitter, heating and heavy (to digest). It checks Vaata, Raktapitta and cough. It is useful in the treatment of swellings and abdominal distention. It subdues Kapha and matures Aama dosha.

Dose:- 5 to 15 grains of the root rubbed in honey or of the powder or swarasam prepared as usual with honey,
Or ¼ to ½ tola as decoction with honey or sugar,
Or boiled with milk, strained and taken with sugar.

Action:- Expectorant and carmiantive and vaatahara.

Uses:- There is a great doubt about the identification of this drug in different parts of India. The root used in the Madras Presidency is very popular and is specially used in sore-throat and cough due to throat troubles. The root is rubbed with honey and licked slowly morning and evening.

It is specially reputed as Vaataharam. Charaka mentions a pill made up of 1 part of Rasna, and 1¼ part of Guggula, to be given with ghee in Gridhrasi vaata or sciatica. Rasnaadi Quathams are many and contain among other drugs Rasna, Sunthi, Devadaaru, Gudoochi and Dasamoolams. The decoction of this compound powder is generally given with castor oil. It is recommended in hydrocele and hernia (“Mootra vriddhim….. Vriddhim antrodbhavan Jayet” Saarangadhara). It is used in intestinal distention, in pulmonary troubles as well as for relief of nervous pain. It is a very popular drug in Southern India for the treatment of rheumatism (Aamavaata) and it is combined with castor oil.

71. Rasona

Names:-        Latin             Allium sativum
Tamil             Vellaipoondu
Telugu          Vellulli
Canarese       Bellulli
Malayal         Vellulli
Urdu              Lasun

Rasono brimhanah Vrishyah
Snigdhoshnah paachanah Sarah
Rase paakecha Katukah
Teekshno Madhurako Matah
Bala varnakaro medhaa
Hito nethryo Rasaayanah
Hridroga jeerna jwara Kukshi Soola
Vibandha gulmaaruchi Kaasa Sophaan
Durnaama Kushtaa nalasaada jantu
Sameerana swaasa Kaphaan cha hanti.

Lasuna (Rasona-garlic) is oily, heating and digestive. It quickly penetrates. In rasa and vipaaka, it is pungent and it is also sweet. It is teekshna (acute). It is aphrodisiac and makes one plumpy (Brimhanam). It improves strength and complexion. It is good for eye sight, intellect and as a tonic. It is useful in the treatment of heart diseases, chronic fevers, colic, constipation, Gulma, anorexia, kaasa, sopha, piles, Kushta, loss of appetite, Jantu (Vermicide) and swaasa. It checks Vaata and Kapha.

Dose:- Of the oil ½ to 2 minims.
Garlic 1 part, oil 8 parts, milk 32 parts. Boil till the oil remains.
Or,Garlic 1 part, oil 8 parts. Heat the oil and strain.

Dose:- 3 to 10 minims of the oil with milk and sugar.

The swarasam of Lasuna is generally extracted by crushing the bulbs along with bran and expressing through thick cloth. 1 to 3 minims with milk and sugar.
Garlic ½ to 1 tola, milk 4 to 16 oz, water double the quantity of milk, mix and boil down till the milk remains, filter, add honey or sugar and take every morning.

Action:- Internally, stimulant, diuretic in small doses, galactagogue, emmenagogue, intestinal antiseptic, expectorant, antimalarial, antifilarial, antitubercular, antispasmodic in asthma, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac and tonic in proper doses.

Externally, antiseptic, rubefacient, counter-irritant and blistering.

In large doses, it is an irritant and produces flatulence, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea etc.

Uses:- Garlic is used in a variety of diseases, specially as a stimulant in Vaata diseases. It is a reputed home remedy and is popularly called the musk of the poor man.

Its action on the bronchial mucous membrane and as an antispasmodic in asthma, is marvelous in some cases. It is also used in consumption and in the early stages, it acts as a specific. Milk boiled with Lasuna has been very much extolled as a tonic. It is the regulation of the dose that is the most difficult part in the administration of Lasuna. The same dose does not suit all constitutions and in some cases disagreeable symptoms are noted which necessitate withholding of the drug. Charaka recommends its use in elephantiasis.

An external application of the oil is antiseptic and stimulant to the wounds. The swarasam of Lasuna is powerfully caustic and when introduced into sinuses produces inflammation and powerful reaction resulting in a high temperature, some times upto 1050. In some cases, the sinus is healed by one application. In ear-ache, the oil is prepared along with Hingu (Refer Hingutrigunataila) and dropped comfortably warm into the ear. As a poultice ground with Omum, turmeric and castor oil ad boiled with water, it makes a nice application for relieving inflammation. As an external application in pneumonia and pleurisy, it has produced excellent results, sometimes cutting short the duration of the diseases. It is mixed with camphor and turmeric and rubbed all over the body when the limbs become cold due to collapse or in hysteria. It is a favourite of old physicians in the after treatment of puerperal women. If properly used, Lasunam is one of the most useful drugs of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia.

In Malarial fevers, Lasuna has been used with great success. It is used as a secret remedy in many villages in South India. Grind equal parts of Arka (Calotropis gigantia), lasuna and pepper into a mas and make into 5 grain pills. One to 3 pills may be given two or three times a day for the treatment of Malarial attacks. It is a bit heating and so the effects must be carefully watched in each case. Ordinarily, it is good to stop its use temporarily after using the pills for 2 or 3 days. It is most useful in Vaata and Kapha types.

72. Revalchinni

Names:-        Latin             Garcinia morella
Tamil             Revalchinni
Telugu           Revalchinni
Canarese        Revalchinni
Malayal          Revalchinni
Urdu              Revalchinni

Revalchinnee Katuh Tiktaa
Balyaa Saa Mrudurechini
Hantyajeerna mateesaaram
Vahnimaandya marochakam
Vitsangam Seeta pittamcha
Dushta Vrana Virohini.
Saaligraama Nighantu

Revalchinni (Rhubarb) is pungent and bitter. It gives strength. It is a mild laxative. It is useful in the treatment of indigestion, diarrhoea, lack of appetite and bad taste, constipation, seetapitta (Urticaria) and foul ulcers.

Dose:- 3 to 10 grains of the powder to be given with honey or hot-water.

Action:- Purgative.

Uses:- This is a purgative generally given in pill or powder form. It has some griping sensation and it is therefore mixed with other carminatives. It is given to children with milk and Omam-water and is contained in Rechana vati.

73. Saindhava Lavanam

Names:-        Latin             Rock salt
Tamil             Induppu
Telugu           Saindhava lavanam
Canarese       Induppu
Malayal          Induppu
Urdu              Senda namak

Saindhavam Lavanam Swaadu
Deepanam Paachanam Laghu
Snigdham ruchyam himam vrishyam
Sookshmam Netryam Tridoshahrit.

Saindhava Lavanam is sweet, carminative and digestive. It is light and lubricating. It improves taste. It is cooling and aphrodisiac. It is subtle (Sookshma) and penetrates quickly. It is good for the eyes. It checks the three Doshas.

Dose:- 10 to 30 grains as a digestive and 120 to 240 grains as an emetic.

Action:- (“Vrishyam chakshushyam ruchyam deepanam thridoshaghnam pootam vrana vibandhaghnam” Raaja Nighantu. “Mriduseetaa veeryatwaat pittaharam” Sushruta-Sutra.Ch. 40).

Cooling when compared with Samudralavana, digestive, preservative and antiseptic. When analysed according to Modern Chemistry, it is said to contain sodium chloride and some oxidizing properties which cannot be explained according to modern methods.

Uses:- It enters into the comosition of many medicines used as carminatives and digestives.

Externally, it is used as a lotion for washing bad ulcers. Saturated solution of salt in water is dropped into the eye on the opposite side in scorpian bite. I found instantaneous relief in some cases.

74. Saalmali

Names:-        Latin             Bombax malabaricum
Tamil             Ilavan
Telugu           Buruga
Canarese       Buruga
Malayal          Ilavu
Urdu              Kheekar

Mochaasraavo himo graahi
Snigdho Vrishyah Kashaayakah
Kaphapittaasra daahanuth.

Mochasrava (Saalmali) is astringent and cooling, constrictor, lubricating (Snigdha) and aphrodisiac. It is useful in the treatment of Pravaahika (Dysentery), Atisaara (Diarrhoea), Aama-indigestion, Kapha, Raktapitta, and Daaha.

Dose:- 5 to 15 grains of the gum resin powder to be taken with ghee and sugar or water and sugar or honey.

Action:- Demulcent, alternative, astringent ad aphrodisiac.

Uses:- It is specially indicated in haemorrhage both internal and external. Powder applied to a cut wound heals it by first intention. It gums the edges and brings them together as by suturing. It is therefore an excellent antiseptic powder for dressing wounds. Mixed with ghee or oil, it makes an astringent antiseptic ointment specially useful at the time of confinement of women. It is also given internally for stopping uterine haemorrhage. In dysentery and diarrhoea, it is very popular. It is non-irritant and soothing astringent. Its advantage over opium is that it stops motion but not urine and it is not narcotic. It is said to be used to stop menses during lactation and also irregular flow of menses during inflammatory conditions. It is a chief ingredient in many restoratives. The flowers are indicated in the treatment of Pradara and enlargement of spleen (Bhaavaprakaash).

75. Saariba

Names:-        Latin             Hemidesmus indicus
Tamil             Nannari
Telugu           Sugandhipaala
Canarese        Sugandhi
Malayal          Nannari
Urdu              Nannari, usb

Saaribaayugalam Swaadu
Snigdham Sukrakaram Laghu,
Agnimaandyaaruchi Swaasa,
Kaasaama Visha Naasanam,
Doshatrayaasra Pradara
Jwaraateesaara Naasanam.

Both the Saaribaas are sweet and lubricating. They are aphrodisiac and heavy to digest. They are useful in the treatment of loss of digestive power, anorexia, Swaasa, Kaasa, Aama Dosha, Visha, diseases caused by vitiation of the three Doshas, diseases of blood, uterine discharges, fever and diarrhoea.

Dose:- 10 to 60 grains of the powder, or ¼ to ½ tola to be taken as a decoction or infusion prepared in the usual manner, or 1 oz. infused in a pint of water, as a drink with sugar, or as a syrup in doses of ½ to 2 oz. in a tumbler of water.

Action:- Refrigerant drink, valuable alternative, diaphoretic, diuretic, blood-purifier and tonic. Said to be aphrodisiac (Bhaavaprakaash).

Uses:- The powder is given with sugar and ghee in case of biliousness or chronic syphilis or gonorrhoea or heat or burning sensation of the urinary passage. For heat or destructive metabolism in children or delicate women and in epilepsy (Apasmaara), it is taken for a long period with advantage (Charaka). It is one of the most reputed tonics and its use is specially appreciated in summer as a syrup.

In skin diseases and in leprosy, Sugandhi lehyam is a favourite remedy. As an external application for itch, eczema etc., it is much used with ghee as an ointment.

76. Sarkara

Names:-        Latin             (English) Sugar
Tamil             Shakkarai
Telugu           Chakkera
Canarese        Sakkere
Malayal          Panchasarai
Urdu              Shakkar

Sarkaraa seta Veeryaatu
Sarwadaaha Vinaasinee
Raktapitta Prasamanee
Chardi Moorchaa trishaapahaa

Sarkara (Sugar) is seetaveerya (cooling), it relieves burning sensation of all kinds. It checks Raktapitta, Chardi (Vomitting), fainting (Moorcha) and thirst.

Dose:- ½ to 1 tola with ghee or a cup of water spiced with Ela, or combined with lehyams, syrups and aasavas.

Action:- Refrigerant, aphrodisiac and tonic.

Uses:- In Ayurveda sweet substances are considered Brimhanam or strength-giving and sugar is one of the most important of such substances. It is also believed to reduce heat and is therefore given as an anupaanam in all pitta diseases. A combination of ghee and sugar or milk and ghee or milk, ghee and sugar or milk, ghee, liquorice (Yashti), honey and sugar is considered Vrishyam or increasing sperm. Each by itself or in combination is very frequently used for the purpose. Other potent drugs such as Duraalabha, Sigru, Sataavari, Vidaari etc., are also used along with sugar in many confections for the same purpose.

Externally, a solution of sugar and water or sugar in powder is used as an antiseptic for cut wounds and injuries.

77. Sataavaari

Names:-        Latin             Asparagus racemosus
Tamil             Tannimuttan Kilangu
Telugu           Pillipeechara
Canarese        Halavumakkalathayiberu
Malayal          Satavari kilangu
Urdu              Satavar

Satavaree guruh seta
Tiktaa Swaadwee rasaayani
Medhaagni pushtidaa snigdhaa
Netryaa gulmaatisaarajit
Sukrastanya Karee balyaa
Vaatapittaasra Sodhajit.

Sataavari is guru, seta, tikta (bitter) and Swaadu (sweet). It is Rasaayani (tonic). It improves intellect, promotes digestive power and growth (Pushtida). It is lubricating (Snigdha). It is good for the eyes. It is useful in the treatment of gulma, and Atisaara. It improves sperm, and breastmilk. It gives strength. It checks Vaata, Raktapitta and Sodha.

Dose:- 10 to 60 grains of the powder to be taken with ghee and sugar or with milk and sugar or with milk and honey. Or in combination with other aphrodisiac drugs as compound powders and lehyams. Or ¼ to ½ oz. Of Swarasam with sugar or ghee and sugar.

Action:- Refrigerant, galactagogue, aphrodisiac and nutritive tonic.

Uses:- It is one of the valuable nutritive tonics and for the above purpose, it is used as a lehyam or medicated ghee. Given as a decoction with Gokshura, it is used as a diuretic and soothing agent. In Raktaatisaara, it is recommended to be taken with milk followed by a diet of milk (Charaka). Its use is aso indicated in Apasmaara. Milk boiled with this drug is also used in Raktapitta or haemorrhage. It is specially indicated in discharge of blood from the urinary passages. It is used as a tonic in all wasting diseases such as consumption.

78. Sunthi

Names:-        Latin             Zingiber officinale
Tamil             Shukku
Telugu           Sonthi
Canarese       Sunthi
Malayal          Chukku
Urdu              Sont

Snigdhoshnaa Katukaa Sunthee
Vrishyaa Sopha Kaphaarucheen
Hanti Vaatodara swaasa
Paandoon Sleepada naasanee.

Sunthee is oily (Snigdha) and heating. It is pungent. It is aphrodisiac. It checks Kapha and anorexia and aama. It is useful in the treatment of Vaata, abdominal diseases and worms. It is a tonic.

Dose:- 5 to 30 grains of the powder with hot water or salt and hot-water or mixed with Guda or made into a bolus with syrup. Or as an infusion or decoction. Or as a leham with other drugs (Sowbhaagya Sunthi).
Raw ginger (Aardraka) also in a similar manner.

Action:- Internally, stimulant, digestive and carminative and anti-rheumatic.
Externally, a rubefacient and anodyne.
Raw ginger-diuretic and cooling.

Uses:- It is used as a carminative and is very useful in the early stages of gastric disorders. In abdominal distention, it is of great value and may be combined with castor oil. In rheumatism, it seems to have a specific action. Raw ginger seems to act more as a diuretic and the dry ginger more as a carmiantive. Raw ginger is believed to be cooling and the dry ginger heating. The juice of raw ginger and honey in a fairly big dose by itself causes motion and relieves tympanites. It also increases the quantity of urine. Ginger is a home remedy used in a variety of diseases with advantage, among which may be mentioned, colic, diarrhoea, flatulence, dyspepsia, loss of appetite, cough due to sore throat, bronchitis or asthma, heart disease, dropsy, cholera, nausea, bad taste in the mouth, fevers and nervous diseases. So much so, it enjoys the popular names of Visvabheshajam (universal medicine) and Mahoushadhi (the great drug).

Externally, it is used as a paste, cold or hot for relieving pain, swelling, head-ache and tooth-ache. It is used as a counter-irritant by application into the conjunctiva (kalikam) and nose (Nasya) in solution with water, preferably along with common salt in order to relieve headache, heaviness in the head and brain symptoms in fevers, insanity and hyseria. In pain in calf muscles due to weakness or in fevers an external application of ginger with water as a thick hot paste acts as an instantaneous temporary remedy. So also in almost all kinds of pain. In inflammations of liver, it is applied externally as a paste along with Navaasaaram (Ammonium chloride), and Devadaaru mixed with water or cow’s or goat’s urine as Suradaaru lepa choornam.

79. Surakshaaram

Names:-        Latin             Pottassii nitras
Tamil             Vediuppu
Telugu           Surekaaram
Canarese        Surakhara
Malayal          Vediuppu
Urdu              Shora

Suraakshaaramcha Katukam
Teekshna mushnamcha Rechakam
Tiktamagner deeptikaram
Sookshmam khaaram Laghu Smritam
Daadhakrith Soshakrit Graahi
Vaatanuth Pitta Kopanam
Pleeha Moorchaa Mootra Kricchra
Netraruk Vaataraktanuth
Kaasa naasaapaakancha Pootikaan
Sirah paakamcha Soolancha
Aadhmaanamchaiva naasayeth.
Nighantu Ratnaakaram.

Suraakshaaram (Potassium Nitrate) is pungent and bitter, acute and penetrating, heating and laxative. It improves the digestive power. It is subtle (Sookshma). It is Ksharam (caustic) and light. It causes burning sensation, and wasting (Sosa). It is a constrictor (Graahi). It checks vaata and excites Pitta. It is useful in the treatment of Pleeha, Moorcha (fainting), difficulty in passing urine, eye diseases, Vaata Rakta, deep Jaundice (Kumbha Kaamila), cough, inflammation in the nose, abscesses, inflammation in the head (sirah paakam), Colic and distention of the abdomen.

Dose:- 5 to 15 grains.

Action:- Diuretic, diaphoretic, cooling in small doses and irritant in large doses.
Antispasmodic and combustive in Asthma inhalation powders.

Uses:- It is used in combination with other medicines for its diuretic properties. A pinch or two of the powder is given with lemon juice diluted with plenty of water, in certain stages of cholera, to excite the secretion of urine. It is used in the preparation of Sankhadraavakam. It is also used in the preparation of asthma cigars or powders for inhalation along with Vaasa, Datoora, guggulu, devadaru and neem leaf etc. A piece of blotting paper soaked in solution of Suraakshaaram and dried, is burnt and the fumes are inhaled by some for the relief of the fit of asthma.

80. Swarnamukhi

Names:-        Latin             Cassia senna
Tamil             Nilavarai
Telugu           Sunamukhi
Canarese        Sunnaamakki
Malayal          Sunnamukhi
Urdu              Sana

Dose:- ½ to 2 tolas as a decoction either alone or with other drugs.
As a lehyam or confection with Coriander, Aaragwadha majjah, Kalkanda, Draaksha, rose-water or rose-buds and honey and a little tamarind also, if desired.
As a syrup.

Action:- Purgative.

Uses:- It causes free purgation of semi-solid stools. Its chief disadvantage is its nauseating taste. Its advantage is that it is one of the safest purgatives. The taste can be disguised to a great extent by the above confection. It makes the urine red and probably decreases the quantity also.

81. Talisapatri

Names:-        Latin             Abies Webbiana
Tamil             Taalisapatri
Telugu           Taalisapatri
Canarese        Taalisapatri
Malayal          Taalisapatri
Urdu              Taalisapatri, Zarunab

Taalessam Laghu Teekshnoshnam
Swaasa Kaasa Kaphaanilaan
Nihantyaruchi Gulamaama
Vahni Maandya Kshayaamayaan.

Taalisapatra is light, acute and heating. It is useful in the treatment of Swaasa (Asthma), Kaasa (cough), Kapha and Vaata diseases. It checks constipation, bad taste, Gulma, loss of digestive power and consumption.

Dose:- 5 to 15 grains of the powder with honey or as a compound with other couth remedies.
As a swarasam prepared with 8 times the quantity of water, with a little honey.

Action:- Antispasmodic, carminative, aromatic, mild expectorant and blood-purifier.

Uses:- It contains an aroma which probably has some specific action in improving the tone of the lung tissue. It is specially recommended in chronic cough and consumption. Taalisaadi choornam, of which it forms a very small part, is a favourite remedy for colds and coughs. It has an agreeable odour and is used to improve appetite and taste. It checks the vomiting sensation. Chakradutta recommends the powder to be taken with honey and Vaasaa swarasa in Raktapitta.

82. Tankanam

Names:-        Latin             Borax
Tamil             Vengaram
Telugu           Veligaaramu
Canarese        Beligara
Malayal          Pongaram
Urdu              Suhaga

Khadhitao Tankanam Kshaarah
Katooshnao Kaphanaasanah
Staavaraadi Vishaghnascha
Kaasaswaasaa pahaarakah
Virookshano Anilaharah
Sleshmahaa Pitta dooshanah
Agni deepti Karah teeshnao
Tankana Kshaara Uchyate.
Dhanvanthari Nighantu.

Tankana is a Kshaara (Alkali-caustic), pungent, and heating. It checks Kapha and Vegetable poisons. It is useful in the treament of Kaasa and Swaasa. It is dry, it checks Vaata and Kapha. It vitiates Pitta. It improves appetite. It is acute(penetrating-teekshna)

Dose:- 5 to 30 grains.

Action:- Diuretic, urinary-antiseptic and astringent.

Uses:- This is not much used alone but in combination with other drugs. It is Mutravirajanam or purifier of urine by lessening the inflammation of the urinary passages. Internally, it is also used in fevers as in Aanandabhairava Rasa and as intestinal antiseptic and astringent in dysentery.
Externally, it is used as an eye lotion and for washing wounds. It may also be used as cooling astringent lotion for swellings due to injury and as a mouth-wash or gargle in diseases of throat and tongue along with a little honey and water or along with honey and Yashtimadhu churnam for touching sore-throat.
A teaspoonful mixed in a pint or two of hot water or a decoction of Aswattha bark or Udumbara leaf is good for gargling and for vaginal douche.

83. Thilathailam

Names:-        Latin             Oleum sesami
Tamil             Nallennai
Telugu           Manchinoone
Canarese        Ellenne
Malayal          Nallennai
Urdu              Meethathel

Kashaayaanurasam swaadu
Sookshma mushnam Vyavaayicha
Tailam Samyoga Samskaaraath
Sarva rogaapaham matam.

Tila tailam (Gingelly oil) has an astringent taste as an auxiliary to sweet taste. It is subtle and therefore enters quickly into the tissues and is quickly diffused (Vyavaayicha). It is heating. By combination with other medical substances, it is used in a variety of ways in different diseases.

Dose:- Internally ¼ to ½ oz. As nutritive in dietary food with milk at bed time as  mild laxative. In some children, it is given mixe with equal parts of ghee and castor oil. It is considered to be Pitta Vardhakam and is prohibited in the dietary of patients suffering from excess of pitta.

Action:- Internally, nutritive and lubricant.
Externally, a soothing application and also nutritive.

Uses:- In India it is rarely used as a laxatve though the British Pharmacopoeia has approved it to be a substitute for Olive oil. Used alone internally as a medicine it is believed to increase Pitta and is therefore mixed with other drugs.
Externally, rubbed to the body, it is a good cleaning agent and is also believed to be absorbed to some extent.
It is used in the preparation of many medicated oils and ointments and is believed to carry the drugs into the tissues by its penetrability (Saratwam).

84. Thuttham

Names:-        Latin             Cupri sulphas
Tamil             Mailthuttham
Telugu           Mailthutthamu
Canarese        Mailthuttha
Malayal          Thuttham
Urdu              Mohurthuttha

Nissesha Dosha Vishahrit Gada soola moola
Kushtaamla paittika vibandha haram paramcha
Raasaayanam Vamana reka Karsm garaghnam
Switraapaham Gadita matra

Thuttham (Copper sulphate) removes completely the vitiated three doshs and Visha. It is useful in the treatment of heart diseases, soola (colic), piles, Kushta, Amlapitta, constipation and Leucoderma. It is a Rasaayanam (tonic). It causes vomiting and purging. It is an antidote for poisoning (Gaa visha).

Dose:-  ½ to 2 grains as an astringent.
5 to 10 grains as an emetic.

Action:- Internally in very small doses an expectorant and in large doses an emetic. Externally antiseptic and caustic.

Uses:- Externally a very dilute solution of it, 1 in 1000 or more is used for washing callous wounds. The crystal is used as a caustic for proud flesh of wounds and for touching granular lids. As Gurubasma, a compound powder with alum, it is muc used by Siddha physicians as expectorant and emetic. It is said that some physicians use it in the treatment of leposy. Burn a piece of copper sulphate in the fire, take the burnt crystal, and powder it into white ash. Put a pinch of the ash at the site of scorpion-bite and gently put on it a drop of water. A sharp burning sensation is felt which cures the pain of scorpion-bite. The powder should be prepared then and there or kept carefully in a stoppered bottle. A wick prepared by soaking it in copper sulphate solution and dried, is useful in widening small sinuses.

85. Thwak

Names:-        Latin             Cinnamomum zeylanicum
Tamil             Lavangapattai
Telugu           Lavangapatta
Canarese        Lavangapatte
Malayal          Lavangapattai
Urdu              Dalcheeni

Varaamgam Laghu teekshnoshnam
Kapha Vaata Vishapaham
Kantha Vaktra ruhohanti
Siroruk Vasti sodhanam.
Dhanvanthari Nighantu.

Varaangam (cinnamon) is acute, penetrating, light and heating. It checks Kapha. Vaata and Visha. It is usefl in the treatment of diseases of the mouth and headache. It cleans the urinary bladder.

Dose:-          5 to 30 grains with honey, or as a swarasam with honey, or as a compound powder.

Action:- Carminative, antispasmodic, aromatic, stimulant, astringent and germicide.

Uses:- It is given along with other drugs in flatulence, nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea and to check griping pain and bad taste caused by other medicines. Kept in the mouth it removes the foul smell of the mouth. It is specially useful in sysentery, preferably given as a swarasam with honey in the early stages or as a compound powder with other astringents such as nutmeg, Salmali, Babbula and Ahiphena, the last with caution.

86. Trivrit

Names:-        Latin             Ipomea turpethum
Tamil             Sivadai
Telugu           Tegade
Canarese        Tegade
Malayal          Trikolpakkonna
Urdu              Thuruludh

Trivruthaa Katu rushnaacha
Krimi Sleshmodara Jwaraan
Sopha Paandwaamaya pleehaan
Hanti Sreshtaa Virechane.

Trivruth is pungent, dry (non oily) and heating. It is useful in the treatment of Krimi, Sleshma, Udara, Jwara, Sopha, Paandu and diseases of the spleen (Pleeha). It is the best of purgatives (Sreshta).

Dose:- 10 to 60 grains of the powder with a little sugar and water or ground with equal parts of Harithaki and Sunthi in water and given with honey,
or  20 to 30 grains with an ounce of castor oil,
or as a lehyam with Draksha and spices.

Action:- In small doses laxative and in large doses purgative.

Uses:- This is the favourite purgative of Charaka (Trivrinmoolam virechane). It causes purgation without much gripping. It does not irritate the kidneys. In reasonable doses it is safe even in a pregnant woman. With a little honey or sugar it has pleasant taste. In dropsy, either due to heart, kidney or liver disease, it is very useful. The leaves of Trivrit, Sunthi and Palasa crushed and fried with a mixture of ghee and gingely oil or castor oil and given as a sakan prepared according to taste is recommended in Arsas along with curd (Dadhi). It is used in a variety of diseases, such as fevers, jaundice, piles, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Pitta-udara, Pitta-pandu, Vatasopha, Gulma, Consumption, Netra-roga and specially in Pitta diseases. I have been using it for over 20 years with very satisfactory results as Dhaanyakadi lehyam or Trivruthi lehyam along with other drugs.

87. Tuvaraka

Names:-        Latin             Hydnocarpus wightiana
Tamil             Neeradimuthu
Telugu           Neerudu
Canarese        Sarvolu, Thuvaraka
Malayal          Maravetti
Urdu              Jangali Badam

Tuvaree Graahinee Prokta
Laghvee Kapha Vishaasrajit
Tiktoshnaa Vahnidaa Kandoo
Kushta Koshta Krimi Pranuth.

Tuvaraka is bitter, light and heating. It is a constrictor (graahi). It improves appetite. It checks Kapha, Visha, Rakta, Pitta, Kandu, Kushta, and Koshta Krimi.

Dose:-  Internally 2 to 10 minims of the oil.
Externally as an ointment or oil

Action:- Blood-purifier, Krimihara, Kushtaharam and tonic.

Uses:- The oil is regarded as a specific for leprosy. There is no doubt that in some cases it has produced marvelous results. There are yet some cases specially advanced in which the result is not distinctly seen. Strict diet restrictions given below are probably necessary. It should also be applied freely over the body during the course of the treatment. It is used to improve the state of the blood as in leprosy, pthisis, skin diseases etc. It is also used in scrofula, secondary syphilis, pthisis and rheumatism with stiff joints, both internally and externally. It may also be given in combination with neem oil which has a similar action.

It is said that the patient suffering from leprosy must have his body purified by Panchakarmas and should observe strict diet, free from oil and salt for five days and then take rice with Mudgayusha or greengram water for fifteen days.

88. Useeram

Names:-        Latin             Andropogon muricatus
Tamil             Vilamichhamver
Telugu           Vattiveru
Canarese        Lavancha
Malayal          Ramachham
Urdu              Bala

Useeram paachanam seetam
Stambhanam laghu tiktakam
Madhuram Jwarahrit Vaanti
Madanuth Kapha Pittanuth
Trishnaasra Visha Veesarpa,
Daaha Kricchra vranaapaham.

Useera is bitter and sweet. It is light and constrictor. It improves digestion. It checks Kapha and Pitta. It is useful in the treatment of fever, vomiting, intoxication (Mada), thirst, vitiation of blood, Visha, Visarpa, daaha, difficulty in passing urine and Vrana.

Dose:-    5 to 15 grains of the powder with sugar
or ½ to 1 tola as a decoction or infusion, or 1/8 tola boiled with a cup of water and taken as a drink with milk and sugar,
or as a syrup,
or as an anupanam to other drugs.

Action:- Cooling, diaphoretic, diuretic, antispasmodic and emmenagogue.

Uses:- Along with other drugs it is given in thirst and burning sensation in fever, deranged menstruation, rheumatism, gout etc. It is of special use as a ingredient in Shadangakashayam (Ref p. 82). It is used in the preparation of cooling hair oils, antiseptic soaps and bathing powders and pastes. It is useful for flavouring water and also for making door and window-screens which, when wetted in hot-weather, cool the rooms. It is a cooling drug and as seetakashaya with water it is very useful in relieving inflammation and burning sensation in the urinary tract.

89. Vacha

Names:-        Latin             Acorus calamus
Tamil             Vasambu
Telugu          Vasa
Canarese        Baje
Malayal          Vayambu
Urdu              Bach

Vachogragandhaa Katukaa
Tiktoshnaa Vaanti Vahnikrit
Vibandhaadhmaana Soolaghni
Sakrinmootra Visodhanee
Apasmaara Kaphonmaada
Bhoota Jantwanilaan haret.

Vacha is strong smelling and pungent and bitter. It is heating. It causes vomiting. It improves appetite. It relieves vibandha (constriction) and distention of the abdomen and colic. It helps to discharge stools and urine. It is useful in the treatment of Apasmaara, Kapha diseases, Insanity and Microbic infections (Bhoota) or hysterical affections. It is a vermicide. It checks Vaata.

Dose:- 4 to 15 grains of the powder with honey.

Action:- Internally, bitter, aromatic, stimulant, carminative, diuretic, astringent, anthelmintic, mild laxative, aphrodisiac and tonic.
Externally parasiticide.

Uses:- There are two varieties of it and the white is preferred for use as tonic. It is usually combined with bitter tonics and aromatics and given in ague, habitual constipation, atonic dyspepsia, colic, flatulence and paralytic and nervous affections. It is very much recommended in epilepsy (Bhaavaprakaash). The burnt charcoal is given with honey in acidity and vomiting of children. It is also given in dysentery, diarrhoea, cough, and calculous affections. It is one of the many ingredients of aphrodisiac preparations.

Externally, it is used as a dusting powder for wounds. As an external application for swellings, it is ground with water into a paste along with equal parts of mustard and applied. It is recommended in inflammatory swellings.

90. Vakuchi

Names:-        Latin             Psoralea corylifolia
Tamil             Karbogarisi
Telugu           Bavanchalu
Canarese        Bavuchige
Malayal          Karkolari
Urdu              Bavancha, Bavchi

That Phalam pittalam Kushta
Kaphaanila haram Katu
Kesyam twachyam Vami swaasa
Kaasa Sodhaama Paandunuth.
Dhanvanthari Nighantu.

Vaakuchi is pungent. It increases pitta. It checks Kapha and Vaata. It is useful in the treatment of Kushta, Vami (vomiting), Swaasa, Kaasa, Sodha, Aamadosha and Paandu. It promotes the growth of hair and improves the skin.

Dose:- 10 to 30 grains of the powder.

Action:- Blood-purifier.

Uses:- Its special use is in leucoderma both internally and externally. The powder is used as a bathing powder in ointments and the oil extracted by Pataalayantra is also used in ointments. It has been found specially useful in many cases of leucoderma along with Thuvaraka and Nilini, both internally and externally.

91. Vamsalochana

Names:-        Latin             (English) Bamboo manna
Tamil             Moongiluppu
Telugu           Veduruppu
Canarese        Biduruppu
Malayal          Mulankarpuram
Urdu              Thabashir

Kashaayam Madhuram
Kaasaagham Vamsalochanam
Moothrakricchra Kshaya Swaasa
Hitaa balyaacha Brumhanee.

Vamsalochana is astringent, sweet, bitter and pungent. It checks cough. It is useful in the treatment of difficulty in passing urine, Consumption and hard breathing. It gives strength and makes the body plumpy (Brumhanee).

Dose:- 5 to 15 grains with honey or ghee and sugar.

Action:- Cooling, tissue-builder and tonic.

Uses:- It is used in cough, consumption, astma and fever. In combination with other astringent medicines, it is given in chronic dysentery and internal haemorrhages. Its action seems to be due to the presence of some organic salts which improve the quality of blood, elastic tissue and bone. It appears to have a soothing action in the urinary tract and also on the lung tissue. It is also given in seminal weakness and is considered as a substitute for Pravala and Mukta and is more cooling. It is one of the chief ingredients of Chyavanapraasa and Vasaavaleham, the reputed tonics and expectorants and of Talisadi and Sitopaladi churnams, popular expectorants. 10 or 15 grains of the powder rubbed with a little honey and preserved Amalaki (Amalaki murraba) makes a simple and a very good combination in consumption or wasting diseases as a tonic. It is also used in chronic gonorrhoea and is one of the constituents of many aphrodisiac preparations.

92. Vaasa

Names:-        Latin             Adhatoda vasica
Tamil             Adathodai
Telugu           Addasaramu
Canarese        Adusoge
Malayal          Adalodakam
Urdu              Adathoda

Ataroosho Himah Tiktah
Pitta Sleshmaasra Kaasajit
Kshayahrit echardi Kushtaghno
Jwara Trishnaa Vinaasanah.
Dhanvanthari Nighantu.

Ataroosha (Vaasa) is cooling and bitter. It checks Pitta, Sleshma, blood diseases and Kaasa. It is useful in the treatment of Kshaya, Cchardi, Kushta, Jwara, Trishna and Visha.

Dose:- ¼ to ½ oz. Of the swarasam with honey or a larger dose if emetic action is desired.

Or as a decoction of the leaf or root given in dose of ½ to 2 oz. With or without honey.

Action:- Expectorant, antispasmodic, alterative, blood-puifier and tonic.

Uses:- It is a common remedy for cough. It is used as a decoction or syrup or as a leham with Harithaki, Pippali, Sunthi, sugar, honey etc., in all lung complaints (refer Vasavaleha). Where the drug has to be preserved for a long time, Vasarishta may be used. In anaemia with haemorrhages (Raktapitta) from any part of the body, it is known as a specific remedy. In all fever decoctions, specially when Kapha and Pitta are involved, Vaasa is given in combination with other drugs. For immediate expectoration in children and spasmodic attack of asthma, a large use of fresh juice gives immediate relief which may be followed up by other preparations of this drug.

93. Vibheethaal

Names:-        Latin             Terminalia belerica
Tamil             Tanikkai
Telugu           Tadikaya
Canarese        Shantheekaye
Malayal          Thanikkai
Urdu              Balla

Aksham bhedana rukshoshnam
Vairasya Kriminuth Katu
Chakshushyam Swaadu Paakancha
Kashaayam Kaphapittanuth.

Vibheetaki (Aksham) is rooksha and Ushna. It is pungent and sweet by Vipaaka and also astringent. It checks Kapha and Pitta. It is useful in the treatment of loss of voice and Krimi. It loosens the secretions and excretions (Bhedanam). It is good for the eyes.

Dose:- 5 to 30 grains of the powder.

Action:- Astringent, anthelmintic, mild-laxative in large doses and tonic.

Uses:- It is one of the ingredients of Triphala and is used very much in combination. It is specially useful in throat troubles as a pigment with honey. By its astringent taste it is useful in dysentery and diarrhoea and other inflammatory affections of the stomach and intestines. The decoction mixed with honey is a very good antiseptic and astringent gargle in sore mouth and throat. As giving colour to the hair, it is used in hair oils and it gives black colour to them. It seems to be more soothing in action than Harithaki.

94. Vidangam

Names:-        Latin             Embelia ribes
Tamil             Vayvidangam
Telugu           Vayuvidangalu
Canarese       Vayuvidanga
Malayal          Vishalari
Urdu              Baybidang

Vidangam Katu teekhnoshnam
Rooksham Vahnikaram laghu
Soolaadhmaanodara Sleshma
Krimivaata Vibhandhanuth.

Vidangam is pungent, dry, laghu, penetrating (teakshna) and heating. It improves digestion. It is useful in the treatment of colic (Soola), abdominal distention, Udara, Sleshma, Krimi and Vaata. It relieves constipation.

Dose:- ¼ to 1 tola for single administration ground with water, strained through cloth and taken with sugar, honey or castor oil.

5 to 15 grains for repeated administration either alone or in combination.

Action:- Carminative, anthelmintic and alternative.

Uses:- It enjoys a high repute as an anthelmintic and is given either alone or in combination with other drugs. It is given for a few days and then followed by castor oil or Trivrit. For round worms and thread worms, it may be combined with Palasa beejam, Krishnajiraka etc., and for tape worm it is given along with a decoction of Dadima-moola-thwak, ½ to 1 tola in each dose. The decoction is given every 4 hours or every morning till the head of the worm passes out in the stools. It is also given as an anupanam to other medicines. It is used both internally and externally in Krimikushta. As a Rasayana or tonic it is recommended by Sushruta. Mixed with Tila, the powder is recommended as a snuffing powder in Ardhaavabhedaka or partial headache.

95. Vishamushti

Names:-        Latin             Strychnos Nuxvomica
Tamil             Ettikkottai
Telugu           Visha Tinduka or Vishamushti
or Mushini ginjalu
Urdu              Kuchla

Vishamushtih Tikta Katuh
Teekshnoshnah Sleshma Vataapahaa (Yogarat-naakara)
Tikta Kushta Vinaasanah
Vaataamayaasra Kandooti
Kaphaa Maarso Vranapahaa.
Raja Nighantu.

Vishamushti is bitter and pungent. It is acute and heating. It checks Kapha and Vaata. It is useful in the treatment of Kushta, Nervous diseases, diseases of the blood, Itching, Aamadosha, Piles and Wounds. It has been recommended in poisons and as an antidote for dog-bite.

In digestion disorders it is used as Agnitundi Vati made as follows:

Purified mercury, purified aconite, purified Sulphur, Haritaki, Aamalaki, Vibeethaki, Sajjakshara, Chitramoola, Saindhava lavana, Tankana, equal parts of powder of purified Vishamushti seeds 16 parts – grind mercury and Sulphur first and grind the others one by one adding lemon juice; grind well and make 2 grain pills.

Dose:- One or 2 pills, 2 or 3 times a day before or after food with hot water or thin buttermilk. It is used in Malaria as Kumaryadi Vati (see under Kumari). As a general tonic in heart disease and in debility after insanity and fevers it is very useful.

Dose of the seed:- ½ to 2 gr. Of the purified seed. It is never given alone but only as a compound pill such as Agnitundi or Vaatagajaankusam (see below):

Vishamushti wood – powdered 2 to 5 gr.
Leaves powdered 2 to 5 gr.

Action:- Nervine stimulant, digestive, antimalarial, tonic and aphrodisiac.

Uses:- Nux Vomica is very much used as a carminative and tonic for many centuries in India. It is included in the Poisons. It is purified by soaking in buttermilk or water in which raw rice is washed. The seeds are also slightly fried in ghee.

Kinchit Aajyena Sambhristo
Vishamushtir Visudhyati.

In nervous diseases it is used as Vaatagajankusam made as follows. Purified mercury 8 parts, Purified Vishamusti 8 parts, Purified Sulphur 3 parts, Triphala 3 parts, Trikatu 3 parts. Grind Rasa and Gandhaka first and then add and grind with lemon juice the other ingredients one by one and make into 2 gr. Pills.

96. Vidaari

Names:-        Latin             Ipomoea digitata
Tamil             Nilappooshanikilangu
Telugu           Nelagummudu
Canarese        Nelagumbala
Malayal          Palmutakku
Urdu              Vilayikand

Vidaaree Madhuraa Snigdhaa
Brimhanee Stanya Sukradaa
Seetaa Swaryaa Mootralaacha
Jeevanee Bala Varnadaa
Guruve Pittaasra Pavana
Daahaan Hanti Rasaayani
Bhaava Prakaasa

Vidaree is sweet and lubricant. It promotes growth (Brimhanee). It increases milk and sperm. It is cooling. It improves voice. It increases urine. It promotes vitality, strength and complexion. It is heavy to digest (gurvee). It checks Pitta, diseases of blood, Vaata diseases, and burning sensation. It is a tonic.

Dose:- 10 to 60 grains of the powder with ghee and sugar or honey or milk and sugar or as a leham with other drugs.

Action:- Demulcent, alternative, nutritive, galactagogue, aphrodisiac and tonic.

Uses:- It is one of the most reputed tonics of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia and is given in all wasting diseases such as consumption, diabetes, sexual debility and surgical complications. Chakradutta says that Vidari when given with sura (wine) increases the secretion of milk in mothers. In children and invalids suffering from debility, a confection of this drug is very useful as a tissue builder. In irritation of the urinary tract, with frequent micturition and high coloured urine, it has been of great use when given for a long period as a cooling tonic. It is one of the most important ingredients of aphrodisiac confections.

99. Yashtimadhu

Names:-        Latin             Glycyrrhiza glabra
Tamil             Athimadhuram
Telugu           Athimadhuramu
Canarese       Athimadhura, jeshtamaddu
Malayal          Erattimadhuram
Urdu              Mitilakadi, Asailasoos

Yashtee Himaa guru Swaadwee
Chaksushyaa Bala Varna Krit
Snigdhaa Sukrakaraa Kesyaa
Swaryaa Pittaanilaasrajit
Vrana Sodha Vishacchardi
Trishnaa Glaani Kshayaapahaa.

Yashtimadhu is sweet, cooling and heavy to digest. It is good for the eyes. It improves strength and complexion. It is a lubricant (Snighda) and aphrodisiac. It promotes the growth of hair and improves voice. It checks Pitta and Vaata. It is useful in the treatment of Vranasodha, Visha, Chardi, Trishnaa, Glaani (fatigue) and consumption.

Dose:- 5 to 30 grains of the powder with ghee and sugar, milk and ghee or honey. As a pill with cubebs, cloves and Guda as a decoction.

Action:- Demulcent, expectorant, mild laxative, aphrodisiac and tonic.

Uses:- This is a sweet stuff, increases the flow of saliva and acts as a soothing application to the throat. It stimulates the mucous membrane especially of the air passages where its action is more local than general. It is given in inflammatory conditions of the throat, catarrh, cough, hoarseness of voice, asthma and irritation of the larynx and of the urinary passages. It is a cooling drug and is given in fevers to relieve thirst and burning sensation. It is a mild laxative. Taken with milk it is a good tonic and aphrodisiac. It enters in combination of many aphrodisiac pills and lehams. The powder of the seeds of the plant given with milk have been greatly extolled as powerfully aphrodisiac but as the seeds, are very poisonous, an excessive dose should be avoided.

Externally, it is applied with ghee or honey for cuts and wounds.

100. Yavakshaara

Names:-        Latin             Pottassii carbonas
Tamil             Yavakshaaram
Telugu           Yavakshaaramu
Canarese       Yavakshaara
Malayal          Yavakshaaram, Chavarkaram
Urdu              Yavakshaar, Sajee

Yavakshaaro Katooshnascha
Kapha Vaatodaraarthinuth
Aama soolaasmaree Kricchra
Vishadosha Harasmrutah.

Yavakshaara is pungent and heating. It checks Kapha and Vaata. It is useful in the treatment of diseases of the abdomen, pain due to indigestion, Asmari (stone), Kricchra (difficulty in passing urine) and Visha (poisons).

Dose:- 5 to 15 grains of the powder with water.

Action:- Digestive, carminative, antacid and diuretic.

Uses:- It enters the composition of the compound pills and powders used for indigestion, colic, retention of urine etc. In difficult micturition and irritation of the urinary canal, it is given freely diluted with water. In fevers, given in dilution, it acts as a diuretic and reduces the temperature to a slight extent. It is predominantly a the temperature to a slight extent. It is predominantly a carbonate of potash and was used by Sushruta for cleaning surgical instruments and in the preparation of caustic potash.

All the above articles / blog posts are not the original contribution from author, please consider a opinion of qualified doctor, if you considering this. If you need a advice please contact Dr. Anil Joy email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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01 September 2013

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